The design and operation of a brick wood burning stove
Each firewood stove has the following structural elements:
- A chamber where firewood is piled;
- The cast iron grate on which they are placed;
The bottom of the firebox is made of a thick cast-iron plate with longitudinal holes and is called the fire grate
Burning wood in the furnace produces gases heated to a high temperature. These substances pass through the pipe, making the walls of the furnace hot. As a result, the heat is transferred to the air in the room. How quickly the temperature of the air environment rises in the house depends on the thickness of the wall material of the stove. Usually it takes about 5 hours to heat up the rooms in a detached house.
To keep the fire in the furnace, it is necessary to regulate the draught. To do this, open less or more of the ash door and the smoke damper, located in the chimney. It is important not to let too much or too little oxygen into the fire chamber for the firewood. Too much air lowers the temperature in the furnace, and not enough air causes incomplete combustion products. Because of this the heat output of the furnace is significantly reduced, and in the chimney is accelerated soot formation.
Additional parameters for oven classification
The main, as mentioned earlier, is the function of the furnace, which consists of three main (heating, cooking, combined) and additional (bath).
In addition, there are the following criteria:
temperature of heating of the walls; time of burning of a single charge of firewood; time of heating of the walls and creation of comfortable temperature indoors; the direction of motion of exhaust gases in the channels; design of the flue gas exhaust duct; furnace shape. square, trapezoidal, T-shaped, etc.д.The method of exterior of the furnace. tiles, tiles, panels, no trim; manufacturing material. refractory clay of its own production, ready-made industrial composition, bricks.
Detailed masonry scheme. drawings and rows
The process of building a stove with their own hands from bricks will not be long, if you use the step-by-step description. Before you start laying the construction, it is necessary to find a project of a brick stove for the house and drawings with rowing.
Pay attention! Properly selected rowing will eliminate the headache of further operation of the furnace.
Below is a draft of the typical poryadovki stove box, which will ensure effective operation of the stove.
For masonry kitchen stove with a three-channel heating panel (stove length 3.5 bricks 760 × 880 mm, height 22-23 rows) requires 250 whole bricks, six ¾, 43 halves, 20 quarters, three bolts, an ash door, cast-iron grate. Allowed to use the brand of bricks of lower quality M-100 for internal masonry and better quality for the lining of M-175.
To build a brick oven with your own hands to heat your home is possible according to the scheme below. When creating the scheme, it was calculated that the laying of the furnace should be simple and accessible to anyone, including novice craftsmen, and consist of cheap materials.
The masonry is carried out according to the type of Dutch stove, which is suitable for heating residential homes. The wall thickness of such a stove is half a brick.
Please note! When constructing a “Dutch oven”, it is important not to let the room cool down for several days. It is necessary to heat it regularly, at least once every two days.
There are several types of masonry of Dutch type stoves. Options:
In the first case, the joints are filled with mortar tightly, so plastering is not required. It is important to use exactly for masonry stove bricks, also called “red” or “corpulent”. Previously used material from the demolition of old buildings must not be used.
Please note! It is necessary to use bricks of high category for facing, and inside. a lower category.
- Then the corners are laid, and then the contours. To maintain evenness, a system of contours is created. with the help of plumb lines, from the ceiling to the corners of the furnace stretches a twine. Technologically there are three holes in the furnace: an ash-pit, furnace chamber and ash-pan. The scheme shows the location of these areas.
- The ash-pan door is installed after the third row of bricks is laid, after one row the ash-pan is laid.
- Arrangement of the furnace. The door is fixed with burnt wire. On the laying of the vault it is necessary to make undercutting of bricks. The vaulting begins after the second row of bricks after the firebox door.
- The lining of the combustion chamber is made with special refractory bricks.
- During the installation of the chimney pipe, you must provide for the installation of a special damper.
- In the 6th row install the 18×25 grate of spikegrass. A niche in the brick is cut in advance. It is inadmissible to install the spike on the mortar. The voids are filled with sand. The fire grate must be freely removable.
- Two bricks are sawn off at an angle in row 7.
- Installing the smoke damper. It can be mounted on any kind of wire. Installing the smoke damper is necessary for summer operation. Installation of the damper is a simple procedure.
- Installing the 25×18 cm flue door. Starting from the seventh row. Inexpensive doors are a problem. The firebox hatch is a problematic element of the stove. Connect heating channels 1 and 2 in row 8.
- Row 8, there appears the connection of 1 and 2 heating channels. The air from both ducts will go out into the chimney. Sawed bricks are used to bind the joints.
- Next comes the sequential masonry, the next important step is the installation of a cast-iron stove.
- The masonry is completed with masonry work on the chimney.
Advantages and disadvantages
Let’s see what good are homemade burzhuyki, made by folk craftsmen:
- Cheapness. most materials can be found for free or give for them mere pennies;
- Omnivorous. in fact, in the stove burzhuyka can burn any solid fuel;
- Simple construction. if we look at the drawings, we will not find anything complicated in them;
- The possibility of cooking. for this purpose, the stoves burzhuyka are equipped with cooking holes with lids;
- Ease of operation. if there is a good chimney, burzhuyka will work properly and without stinking up the entire room.
Unfortunately, heating with a burzhuyka also has its disadvantages:
- Low efficiency of the stove. without proper modernization, most of the heat will fly into the pipe;
- Not the most solid appearance. although some craftsmen make the most authentic works of art out of burzhuks;
- High temperature of the body. fraught with burns;
- High fuel consumption. in order to keep the stove warm for a long time without needing to burn tons of wood, you will have to go to great lengths.
Homemade Wood Stove Build
Despite some disadvantages, simple wood-burning stoves are still in demand among those who need heat in the absence of a gas pipeline.
What kind of brick to put the stove
The main building material for the construction of the furnace is a red ceramic brick of grade 150, made from fired clay. Its dimensions are standard. 250 x 120 x 65 mm, although in the past there were other stones for the furnace. But now all dimensions are unified, so that the fireclay (refractory) brick, of which the furnace firebox is often laid, in size the same as the usual.
In the construction is still used stone height of 88 mm, but it is not suitable for masonry ovens, because it has cavities. Here is necessarily required only full-bodied stone, without voids and cracks, good quality. True, there is 1 exception. the Dutch oven, it can be laid from used bricks. But it is not necessary to bring to the absurd, the heat source, stacked of cobblestones, just will not warm.
The fact is that the heating stove, built with your own hands from low-quality red bricks, can crack even when the mortar is drying. It should be noted that the clay mortar dries up, but not hardens like the cement mortar. Therefore, beginners are not recommended to experiment with bad or used bricks, otherwise the newly built stove will immediately require repair.
Fireclay stone is used for making the firebox of the stove (if the project requires it)
A separate recommendation concerns the masonry mortar. You should not go to the nearest ravine for clay, because it still needs to be brought to the right condition. It is better to buy a ready-made masonry mix for stoves, clay or fireclay.
Brick stoves for country houses on firewood: the best poryadovki and a step-by-step guide to construction
Most domestic dacha settlements do not yet have the ability to connect to centralized communications. Of infrastructure is good, if there is an asphalted road yes power lines. In such circumstances, building a brick stove for dachas on firewood will help solve an important problem: provide thermal energy for space heating and cooking.
We have picked up for you the schemes and poryadovki the simplest stove constructions, with the laying of which the novice master can cope. With our help, the masonry artisans will easily master the basics of the difficult but very interesting activity of a stove-mason. Flawlessly constructed structure will delight both the owner and the household.
Besides a detailed description of the masonry technology of brick ovens, we provide valuable recommendations on the selection of materials for the construction of the units. The article meticulously prescribes significant subtleties and minute nuances. To help self-heaters attached schemes of furnace designs, orderly instructions, photos and video tutorials.
Recommendations for selection
Floor furnaces for heating the house are chosen taking into account their location. It is necessary to calculate in advance what the size of the device should be. Also need to ensure that the chimney pipe is at least 1 meter in length. Equally important is the power. The higher it is, the better the stove heats. But a powerful device will require more fuel.
Popular models for the living space:
- WGO fireplace stoves. Made in Germany and are made of refractory fireclay HBO.
- EUO stove. It has a simple design and low cost. Made of fireproof materials.
To heat non-residential premises (baths, garages) also need to select the model in terms of power and size. Externally, such deck stoves look less attractive, but their cost is lower. It is recommended to take a series of stoves KIV, PKO-40. They are able to heat the room to the desired level without serious fuel costs.
Features of operation and safety precautions
Using deck ovens is easy.
- Wood-burning stove is loaded with pallets. Gas and electric are connected to mains or gas line.
- Electric models require pre-drying of the heating elements after a long downtime. Other types of stoves do not require such an operation.
- The necessary program modes are set.
- Warming up the chimney to ensure a stable draft (done by opening the damper for 6-7 minutes).
The temperature in the oven must be maintained automatically by the temperature regulators, as indicated by the indicators on the enclosure panel. If there is no automation on the furnace, you will have to control the thermostat yourself.
If the deck oven is used for cooking, then after heating to the desired temperature, you must open the lid and load the plates with cooking utensils into the chambers. When you finish using it, turn it off, and do not keep it on for more than one hour.
It is worth remembering that steel structures are very hot. When loading and unloading the pans it is necessary to use oven gloves, oven mitts and a towel. Failure to comply leads to burns.
Types of slow-burning stoves
If you have planned to build a long-burning stove with your own hands, you have all the tools and you are not afraid of difficulties, then you will definitely need the information from the next section of our review. we will describe the different types of these stoves.
The simplest of all the stoves is the burzhuyka. It is an iron stove, assembled on the basis of an old gas cylinder or from sheet metal. In order to ensure prolonged combustion, its internal volume is made very large. the easiest way to implement it in models made of sheet steel, just choose a suitable size drawing.
Such a stove can run on wood, coal, and pressed solid fuel. It is easy to use, easy to heat and gives a lot of heat. It is also characterized by unpretentiousness. If you need a simple stove for dacha, feel free to choose the burzhuyka. it will be the simplest and most affordable option.
Wood stove fireplace made of brick or stone
This option is good because we can implement in it a long burning and work on the design. On the network there are drawings of similar stoves with large combustion chambers and with afterburning chambers. these are so-called pyrolysis units. They burn not only fuel, but also the gases generated in the pyrolysis process. The unit made of brick will turn out to be bulky, but very effective. Here are its pros:
- Long-term preservation of heat due to the use of bricks or stone;
- Excellent appearance. just find the right design and make a neat masonry;
- The possibility of working in residential areas, unlike all the same “bubafoni”.
The disadvantage is that to assemble such a long-burning stove will require experience in masonry brick.
Presented furnace long combustion has an impressive size, works on wood and has a remarkably simple design. depending on the volume, it can burn up to 20-24 hours, without requiring frequent approaches for laying firewood. For its manufacture will require a pair of metal containers with lids (suitable barrels for 100-200 liters), pipes for the chimney and air supply, as well as a channel for creating a weighted piston.
Long-burning furnace “bubafonya” is most often used to heat non-residential buildings. garages, greenhouses with growing crops, technical facilities and auxiliary premises. Some craftsmen equip it with heating circuits, which allows you to heat living rooms without the risk of filling them with acrid smoke.