Cooling of the processor and video cards of a computer
To understand how the cooling system works, recall physics. Such a thing as “cold” does not exist, it is relatively and it is impossible to change. There is a heat concept. any element of a computer that consumes energy releases heat. Everything around us has a certain charge of heat, which is constantly transmitted from more to smaller.
This is a very simplified explanation. But now we know that the air that passes through the radiator does not cool it, but simply takes the heat to itself. There is also thermal conductivity and heat capacity of materials. Radiators are made from the maximum thermal wire materials with minimal heat capacity. The bottom line is that they can quickly absorb heat and quickly give it without accumulating this energy in themselves.
The same principle is used to cool the video card. But due to the large number of manufacturers and the special shape of this component, the radiators are all different and are made for a specific video card model, while the radiators of the CPU are standardized.
Some loaded elements of the motherboard, such as a power circuit or chipset, are equipped with radiators without fans. If your system provides for acceleration, using a powerful video card and processor, then you need a good blowing of the case. Then the flow of fresh air will cool all the elements with a passive cooling system.
- The performance of the fans for the bucket should approximately correspond to the performance of the fans for blowing
- It is necessary to let cold air down from below, and release from above
- The more expansion slots and 5-inch compartments are filled in the housing, the worse its ventilation
- Replacing ordinary loops round noticeably improves body ventilation.
- The front fan noticeably reduces the temperature in the case.
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As a result, the struggle for ventilation of the case often boils down to installing fans of the maximum possible size and performance in all regular places, after which a drill (hacksaw, electrician, chisel, sledgehammer, “angular grinding”, autogen. Emphasize the right one :-), and the fans are thrust into emergency places. After that, a pair of fans is added to the effect of the body. Usually on blowing a video card and hard drive.
It is better not to talk about the cost of time, effort and money for all this. True, the result is usually not bad, but the noise emitted by this “battery” at full speed goes beyond all conceivable frames, and he sucks dust at the speed of the vacuum cleaner. As a result, the case soon begins to grow with fenbas and reobasy, becoming similar to the Middle Hand Minker. And the process of starting the game instead of simple clicking with the mouse now resembles preparations for the airliner take.off. We must not forget to add momentum to all these fans. In this article, I will try to show how to achieve a similar effect with “low blood”.
All mass buildings can be divided into three types. desktop, Tower with upper (horizontal) BP and Tower with lateral (vertical) PSU. The main market share is occupied by the last two. Everyone has its own advantages and disadvantages, but the third type is considered to be the worst in terms of ventilation. Here the processor finds himself in the non. next to the power supply, and organizing fresh air there is quite difficult.
The general principles of ventilation are quite simple. Firstly, fans should not interfere with natural convection (from the bottom up), but help it. Secondly, it is undesirable to have non-proceeding stagnant zones, especially in places where natural convection is difficult (first of all, these are the lower surfaces of horizontal elements). Thirdly, the larger the volume of air pumped through the case, the less temperature difference in it is compared to “foster”. Fourthly, the stream really does not like various “extracts”-changes in direction, narrowing-expansion, etc.P.
How air exchange occurs? Suppose the fan pumps air into the case, while the pressure in it grows. The dependence of pressure on pressure is called the working characteristic of the fan. The greater the pressure, the less the air will be pumped and the more it will go through the ventilation holes. At some point, the amount of air of the air is equal to the amount of the output, and the pressure will not increase further. The larger the area of ventilation holes, the at a lower pressure it will happen and the better the ventilation will be. Therefore, a simple increase in the area of these holes “without noise and dust” can sometimes achieve more than installing additional fans. And what will change if the fan does not blow, but blews air from the body? Only the direction of the flows will change, the consumption will remain the same.
“Classic” options for organizing the ventilation of the case with the upper PSU are shown in the rice.1-3. Actually, these are actually three varieties of the same method when the air goes diagonals of the case (from the front lower corner to the rear upper). In red, non.proximated zones are shown. The resistance of the flow does not depend on how tightly. He still passes by them. Pay attention to the lower zone in which the video card is located. one of the most critical components of the computer. Installation of the front fan allows you to apply to it (and at the same time to the southern bridge) a little fresh air, knocking down the temperature a couple of degrees. True, at the same time “on the sidelines of life” turns out to be a hard drive (if it is installed in a regular place). In Fig.4 shows why this happens. It schematically shows air flows through the fan (a darker color corresponds to a higher speed). From the absorption, the air enters evenly from all sides, while its speed quickly drops from the fan. From the bumping side of the “long.term” air flow noticeably larger, but only along the axis. An impassable zone is formed from it. The same “aerodynamic shadow” turns out behind the fan’s sleeve, but it quickly comes to naught.
PC with upper mount
Computer cases with a power source installed from above today are very rare, but they exist. As a rule, you can find several buildings of the Mini-Tower series, OEM corps and cheaper buildings with the upper power location. In cases of this type for computers, the fan position should be limited only because they usually do not have ventilation holes on the top panel, but if there are upper ventilation holes in your case, you can maintain the fan position for better air flow and cooling. In some of these cases, the upper casing of the power device (very rarely) can also be installed, therefore it is necessary to configure the fan in the direction of ventilation openings accordingly.
System unit with upper location
Which fan setting is the best for PC cooling?
How not to put coolers in the case
Correct installation of coolers is a very important point. If you ignore it, you can only aggravate the situation. Any fan standing inside the system unit should help the air move from the bottom up backwards. In order to lack errors, almost all manufacturers indicate which side to install the cooler (show the direction of the air flow).
The cooler behind is working for the “bite”
What will happen if the “rear” cooler is incorrectly, and it will blow out air from the outside. Firstly, this will be the warm air that the system system “gave”, then cooling will occur. Secondly, it will prevent the movement of the cold flow below.
In front and works for “blowing”
The effect of the operation of such a fan is minus, because it will blow out cold air, which is trying to get into a systematic through the front panel, which is fraught with the strongest overheating of the components. In addition, very rarefied pressure will be created inside the case, and all the dust will settle on the details. And dust is a very bad heat conductor.
The cooler behind the “blown” behind, and in front. on “blowing”
If you, in attempts to create an ideal cooling system, put two coolers incorrectly-behind the “blowing” and in front of “blowing”-a closed air ring made of hot air and a strong overload of the elements due to impaired pressure forms in the body.
Both components work on “BDUV”
This method forms the highest pressure inside, which creates an additional load on coolers and they have to work “at the limit”.
Both components work for “blowing”
With this operation of fans, the air in the case ceases to circulate. heat transfer stops, dust does not blow and settles inside. Pressure also drops, which negatively affects the work of all elements.
Tips and basic errors
When buying a cooler, pay attention to the following recommendations:
- The installation of the cooler is best done when the motherboard lies on a flat surface, outside the case. So there is more chances to avoid distortions and other troubles.
- The most effective cooler with high speeds is not always. Of course, it provides continuous movement of air directly at the surface of the radiator due to high turbulence, but such air does not have time to fully cool, and, accordingly, “pick” heat. In addition, such a fan gives a lot of noise. It is more important that the cooler has the design of the ribs that will give a “correct” air flow.
- Do not take on your own for grinding the base of the radiator. The polished surface really removes heat from the processor better, but you need to do this very carefully so as not to do even greater holes and scratches, for example with a grinder. If you think that they will flood thermal, and everything will be in order, then you are deeply mistaken. The thermal conductivity of the paste is much lower than that of any metal. This means that the radiator will unevenly pick up heat and the processor will overheat.
- Cooler with a copper core on the base is much more effective than with a continuous aluminum plate. But only if it is large and cut closely. That is, the distance of the two metals is minimized. If the core is small in size, it rotates freely, all the thermal wire advantages of copper will “eat”.
- Before you start work, study how to correctly install the cooler on the processor so as not to violate the heat transfer in the computer’s body with a clock.The air enters the system system from the bottom, and comes out from the back. So he must move after installing additional fans. Special shooting markers showing the direction of air flow are often applied to the cooler. They should focus on them, deciding which side to put the cooler on the processor.
- Before buying the cooler, it is recommended to study its dimensions, especially for towering devices. Too much can how to block the slots for RAM, and prevent the cover from closing the lid.
- Returning the motherboard should not be taken for the cooler. Whatever the reliable and hard mount, in this method you can damage the details, “undermine” the cooler, thereby forming voids between the processor and the radiator.
Where should the fan blow on the processor blow?
The fan on the cooler should blow air through the radiator, thereby cooling it. That is, the fan on the processor cooler should blow towards the processor. On some models of coolers, the fan is installed on the resulting radiator.
Answering the question asked in the heading of the text, it can be safely argued that in the case of gaming computers it is worth having at least four fans. two installed in front and two behind. On the other hand, if you have a case with an oenpered top, it is worth adding one or two fans on top.
How to install a cooler on a processor correctly?
In the buildings where the power supply is located below, the tower cooler can also be directed up if there are holes or cooler that work on blowing.
How to avoid dust accumulation?
How to make sure that this very dust in the building accumulates to a minimum? First of all, you need to vacuum at home. The vacuum cleaner itself is a very useful thing, which we often use too little. And do not hold the computer on the floor. there is dust, sand, hair and everything else, the easiest way to penetrate inside. In addition, check how many fans in the case are located, where they are located, where dust filters blow and are facing them. In the case of more expensive buildings, the most important places (front panel and under the power supply) are already covered with removable filters, which must be cleaned every couple of months, especially if you have pets or just a lot of dust at home. If the housing does not have dust filters, then it is easy to make them yourself. you need to get a grid and magnetic stickers, and then just cut it in size.
Previously, they did not take the air movement seriously-it is good when there was one exhaust 80-mm fan behind the back. Two main types of air circulation in the case are popular today. negative and positive pressure.
P.6 additions and notes:
1) The greater resistance the case exerts, the more important the role of sealing parasitic pederation and such a characteristic of fans (regardless of their orientation), as the created pressure. Factors increasing resistance. Deaf front panel and bottom, array of baskets for hard drives in the front, pile of cables. Air friction against the walls of the case also creates resistance, therefore, in wide housings, the air move a little easier.
2) with the predominance of blowing fans, it is necessary to seal first of all harmful peeration on the roof and rear walls. With superimposing exactly the opposite.
3) Video cards of non.reference design with traditional fans form a vertical movement of air, so if you get carried away with the injection fans in the upper half of the case, they can enter into conflict from the video card.
4) the weaker the video card, the greater the percentage of heat will be dissipated passively from the back of the printed circuit board. And here they can help twisting from the injection fans, but taking into account the previous paragraph, this works only with reference turbines.
5) the craving through the panel of the output of the motherboard, with negative pressure, cannot be completely eliminated, however, the modern boards have a casing in that place, which directs air through the VRM radiator, helping it cooling.
6) cases with a single exhaust fan on the back wall. Not a sentence for hot systems, since its efficiency can be easily raised to almost 100%. In contrast, the case with the upper location of the BP. Real evil. If you put there a modern block, which is cooled by a low.speed fan, then, depending on the speed of the rear, the air of air through the BP risks approaching zero, which can lead to various unpleasant consequences.
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