Installing split systems with your own hands
To put the air conditioner, as a rule, you need to call specialists who, upon the end of the installation of the equipment, will give you a document indicating the correctly done work. When installing the split systems with your own hands, you lose the right to service under warranty. But in order to save finances, many home craftsmen are trying to install an air conditioner with their own hands. At the same time, one point should be taken into account: in order to qualitatively connect the external unit of the system with the internal, and then start the unit to work, you will need to purchase quite expensive equipment. In addition, the installation of split systems is a rather troublesome business, if it is carried out on its own. The purchase of equipment is advisable in the following cases:
- You plan to transfer one or more units to new places;
- If you have purchased several units;
- You plan a serious repair in the apartment, which implies a complete dismantling, and then the reverse installation of a split system;
- You want to help install the split system to your friends or relatives;
- If this set of tools comes in handy to repair a car air conditioner.
In other cases, installing the air conditioner in the apartment with your own hands is inappropriate.
errors when installing and connecting the air conditioner in the apartment.
How to install and connect air conditioner yourself? Let’s be honest with ourselves and answer this question directly, even if we are talking about a low.power household version. no way.
If you do not have special equipment (roller, dynamometric keys, vacuum pump and much more), skills in working with them, then do this for the first time with your own hands, you will be unlikely to succeed.
It doesn’t matter how many useful tips and instructions from A to I will read, you can still miss some inconspicuous detail, or do work due to lack of experience is not high quality.
As a result, after a certain period of time, you still have to call specialists and redo everything.
Why then this article? In order to inviting the installer or a team of air conditioners, you can independently control the quality of work in the process of their implementation, and be sure that your air conditioner will work for a long time and without any problems.
How does work begin? First of all, select a place for installing the air conditioner and mark the hole for laying interchange communications.
Next, proceed to the drilling of the through opening on the street. For this, a boat is used at least 800 mm long and with a diameter of 45mm.
For powerful air conditioners over 2.5 kW, a 80mm drill may be needed.
In order to avoid the formation of dust in the room, with an economical version, a plastic bag is hung under the place of drilling.
Professional installers have long been using a construction vacuum cleaner for this case.
However, with wet drilling strong concrete walls, no protection and vacuum cleaners will save you.
This hole after laying through it all communications is subsequently disconnected.
Please note that for the normal drain of condensate, it is necessary to drill at a slight angle towards the street.
In this case, the condensate will be excreted unhindered, and the water will not accumulate and does not mold in the drainage.
It is not right. The fact is that when drilling in a pre.intended place, you can accidentally get to the armature.
As a result, the hole will have to be transferred. Because of which the air conditioner itself inside the room will shift a few centimeters.
When choosing a place under the through hole and the location of the outer block from the side of the window, it is necessary to drill so that the hole in the end turns out almost along the upper level of the outer block.
This will create the maximum bias for trunk pipes, and will help to avoid oil entering the evaporator.
Put on the installation plate strictly in level.
In this case, the distance from the ceiling to the air conditioner should be at least 10cm. This provides a good fence of air and free installation-demonstration of the internal unit.
For reliable fixation, use high-quality dowel-grooves 640mm or 832mm.
Next, you can proceed to the installation of the outer unit. Mark the mounting points of the bracket.
A 12mm bror with a 12mm brown. Then fix the bracket dowel with nails 1280mm.
Fasten reliably, especially if the condo hangs from the side of the house where the passing part or sidewalks are located.
The distance from the rear wall of the outer block to the wall of the building should be at least 10-20cm. Although much here will depend on the performance of the fan.
Where to place an external block, under a window or side. a matter of aesthetics and ease of operation.
Many people do not like unnecessary meters of a dangling cable and the tubes hanging along the wall. In this case, the lateral location is selected.
Although competent installers and cable and a freonenth, they can lay it very beautifully. Much already depends on the level of professionalism of performers.
What is needed and what air conditioner does not need
From the principle of operation of the air conditioner, it is clear that for its successful work and the economical expenditure of electricity during installation, the following must be taken into account:
- Any thermal contact between the cold and hot zones sharply increases the energy consumption: the compressor, in addition to pumping the agent, now has to chase heat inside the system. for the owner’s money.
- Dust and garbage in the system are unacceptable: a vacuum pump. a high.precision device; One metal crumb can disable it.
- The system should be completely sealed: light.boiling liquids strive to evaporate even through the micron gap.
- The outer unit should be located below the internal: in this case, the thermosphone effect (heated liquid strives to rise) facilitates the compressor operation. Otherwise, the compressor, in addition to the additional consumption of electricity on the lifting of the agent, will also have to overcome the thermosiphone effect.
- The outer unit should be located in the most cool place. Any additional heating is paid by the owner.
- The drainage tube should not have bend up anywhere. Any “U” quickly becomes source of infection: condensate is pure water in which microbes and fungi are freely and freely, and their disputes are always in the air.
DIY air conditioning installation
The correct installation of a powerful split system will be high-quality with your own hands if the consistent instruction of the work is observed.
Installation of the inner block
Internal module or hairdryer is installed immediately. Installation measures include:
- Removing measurements from the device.
- Placement of a steel mounting frame on the wall strictly horizontally with a level check.
- Marking points where there will be fasteners.
- Making holes in the wall with a pedorator.
- Fixation of plastic dowels with a hammer.
- Applying the mounting panel to the wall and fixing it with self.tapping screws.
- Hanging the hair dryer to a special plate and checking its horizontal.
Laying the communication line
Experts advise users who do not know how to connect a household air conditioner without errors with their own hands, start with the preparation of the main channels.
Scheme for connecting air conditioning installation circuit
- The block houses determine the location of the reinforcement so as not to harm the supporting walls;
- The assistant must be below and report the installation;
- holes are drilled using a peorator;
- For houses without thermal insulation, the diameter is 50-60 mm, for heat-insulated buildings-at least 80 mm.
After preparing holes, you need to put the brackets.
You will need to prepare and styling:
- Cut a copper pipe with a margin of bends of 1 m.
- After cutting, neatly bend the product without breaks, observing the limit radius of 10 cm.
- Put on the tube-a-temperature-polyurethane foam hoses. Foamen should not be used due to quick wear.
- Place the thread on the end of the pipe special flanges.
- Drive the ends of the tubes.
- Alternately connect the pipeline, cold and hot fittings, checking them in diameter.
- Tightly, but not tightly tighten the fitting flange.
- Perform a drainage channel from a segment of a reinforced plastic pipe, connecting it to a drain flange or a heat.assigned pipe.
- Make a spike working as a soldering iron in a circle.
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Installation of the outer unit
The external module of the split system weighs more than 20 kg due to the compressor. Heights are carried out with the involvement of 1-2 people:
- Marking is organized using the level.
- The holes are made by the ashorator, taking into account the thermal insulation of the house.
- Anchor bolts are screwed into the holes.
- Brackets are fastened with a nut to the bolts.
- To reduce vibrations under the paws of the external module, rubber is laid.
- The quality of fasteners is checked and the external module is hung.
Connection of the system blocks
The connection of the blocks is carried out through the channels in the wall with the connection of the cable to the terminals similar to the color of the main wiring. With a drop in the level of the location of the modules more than 5 m, a special loop is made to capture the oil. With a smaller difference, the loop is not executed.
Drainage channels are equipped with a challenge to the street or to the sewer. The pipes are connected as follows:
- Corpushes are pulled to the output of the inner block (plastic tube with the tip).
- The connection is fixed with a clamp.
- A hose to remove moisture from the walls is put on the output of the outer unit.
- When using a polymer pipe, an adapter is selected.
Drainage tubes must be laid with a slope. The maximum is 3 mm1 m, the minimum is 1 mm1 m.
Freon circulation system
Copper tubes for refrigerant are bent with a pipeline or spring without sharp turns. Connection begins with the inner block. nuts are twisted from the ports. As they weaken, nitrogen hissing is heard. After its termination, the plugs are removed, the nuts are removed, put them on the tube and begin to roller.
- The evenness of the edges is checked.
- Zazubes are smoothed out with sandpaper.
- The cross section is adjusted with a calibrator with the alignment of the edges by 5 cm.
- The extreme parts are collapsed for fastening at the input and output.
- During the collapse, the edge of the pipe is directed down and is fixed with the output of 2 mm.
- The collapse cone is placed on the edge of the pipe, twisted with effort.
- Rollering ends when the cone does not go to the edge.
The operation is repeated for all segments.
Connection with the port
The broken end of the tube is connected to the output, the nut is twisted. Sealants and additional gaskets are not used. For strong fixation, you will need a pressure of 50-70 kg so that copper is flattened, and the connection has become monolithic. Work is made for all outputs.
The solution is used for sealing. You need 0.5 l of distilled water heated to boiling water. Dissolve 1 t. l. laundry soap. The exhaust nipple is removed, a bicycle pump is put on the pipe. When pumped with a brush, the composition is applied, and the thread is pulled up until the bubbles stop formed and 1/8.
Important! It is better to remove soap plaque with a damp cloth.
Vacuuming contributes to the removal of moisture, dust, excess air. The system is swinging a special pump for 60 minutes. During this time, moisture and air remains are completely removed.
Filling and drinking
The system is filled from the cylinder with a cooling agent. The tank is connected through a pressure gauge with an adapter. The pressure is pumped to the value specified in the manufacturer’s documentation. Electric wires are connected by terminals. zero for zero or neutral. Phase are connected by color.
Important! Air conditioners with a shaland are not filled with freon and vice versa.
- A disconnective machine is turned on.
- Air conditioning goes into testing mode automatically.
- In some models, the test is activated from the remote control.
- If air is over at the end of the test, the position of the blinds is set.
- Thermal shielding is performed with thin aluminum-this is how 2-3 % more electricity is saved.
- Burn and drainage pipe are wrapped in electrical tape, resistant to moisture.
Finally. advice to beginners
It is unnecessary to write beaten phrases about the complexity of the independent installation of the air conditioner, this is understandable from all of the above. For a better understanding, we advise you to carefully watch videos from different masters, and also read the Комментарии и мнения владельцев left under these videos on YouTube. Examinated installers often unsubscribe there and you can get a lot of useful information from them.
Last moment. do not try to save on the tool. If the pedorator can be taken from a neighbor, then you are unlikely to find a vacuum pump for free, but you can’t work without it. Although some unfortunate installations do without vacuuming, squeezing air out of the contour freon. But moisture remains, and then it disables the compressor.
How to clean with your own hands: Serving the air conditioner at home
To achieve savings, many owners of apartments resort to independent maintenance of climatic equipment after installing the air conditioner with their own hands. The video from the network contain a lot of useful information on this issue, so there are no special problems.
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The simplest method of cleaning is foam flushing. For this, a special detergent is used, which is sold in the form of an aerosol spray.
- Disconnect the air conditioner from the network, open its lid and get filters.
- Rinse filters with running water and leave to dry.
- Process the ribs of the evaporator with foam from the spray can and withstand the time indicated in the manufacturer’s instructions (10-30 minutes.).
- Install the filters back and turn on the air conditioner by configuring it for ventilation or heating mode (the choice of mode depends on the recommendations of the foam manufacturer).
- After 30 minutes. Air conditioning can be turned off and ventilated by the room.
The most common way to clean the air conditioner is foamy washing
On the video “How to clean a split system at home” can be found in more detail. This method is suitable for removing contaminants from a thermal exchanger. To clean the drainage bath, fan and hidden sections of the air conditioner, you will have to disassemble it.
The basic principles of the work of the household air conditioner
If we reason from the standpoint of physical laws, then in order to cool in one place of a certain balanced system, then in the other section this should be compensated by the corresponding heating. How to achieve this?
Everyone knows that the evaporation of the liquid from the surface of a object is always accompanied by the absorption of heat and, accordingly, by the rapid cooling of this surface. It is enough to recall that, for example, a wet palm feels a much greater coolness than dry. Wet compresses on the forehead of the sick when increasing temperature is also one of the practical techniques for using this principle. And vice versa, the condensation of steam into a liquid state passes with the release of heat. So, it is necessary to create conditions so that in one single system the liquid on one section actively evaporates, and on the other-under the influence of some external influence, condensed, giving out heat. This is how almost all refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners are arranged.
The fundamental scheme of the work of any air conditioner is in the following figure:
The principle of operation of the air conditioning installation
This unit can be divided into two halves. external and internal. In split systems, this separation occurs “literally”-with a division into appropriate blocks. In monoblock models, this is not so noticeably visually, since the whole structure is arranged in a single case, but the principle of operation does not change.
So, both in the external and internal part of the air conditioning installation has its own tubular radiator, however, they perform directly opposite functions. In the outer block, he plays the role of the capacitor, and in the inner. the evaporator. Between themselves they are connected by hermetic pipelines. According to this closed contour using the compressor, a special substance is constantly pumped. the so.called refrigerant.
The main requirement for such a refrigerant is quite high, compared to atmospheric gases, boiling temperature, lack of likelihood of freezing (transition to a solid aggregate state), high volatility. At the dawn of the production of refrigerators and air conditioners in this capacity, ammonia was most often used. However, the pairs of this chemical compound are very dangerous for the human body, and therefore over time it was everywhere replaced by freons. special synthetic gases (or gas mixtures) developed specifically for such purposes. Until recently, Freon R-22 was most often used in most air conditioners, however, in a number of countries, its use is already prohibited, as a substance leading to the destruction of the ozone layer of earth. The more modern, perfect and safe is Freon R-410A. The boiling point, that is, an active transition from liquid to a gaseous state with normal atmospheric pressure, is approximately minus 50 ° C.
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Full.time factory “packaging” of various types of freons
However, as is known from the course of thermodynamics, the process of phase transition of a substance from one aggregate state to another depends not only and not so much on temperature as on pressure. This means that through special devices it is necessary to create conditions for the active condensation of the refrigerant outside, respectively, the evaporation of the room. This is achieved by the operation of the compressor and the presence of a special throttle device (heat regulatory valve).
If you consider in more detail the cycle of work, then it looks as follows:
- At the entrance to the compressor, the refrigerant has a gaseous state at a relatively low pressure.
- The compressor ensures the movement of the freon through the system, while significantly increasing the degree of compression before entering the capacitor radiator. Increasing pressure, of course, is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature. The flow of cold outdoor air, supplied by the fan, removes heat, while activating the process of condensation of the refrigerant. its transition to a semi.liquid state.
- Moving through the pipes, the freon before entering the evaporator passes through the throttle device. a heat regulatory valve. Due to the special configuration of the passage, the pressure in the highway decreases sharply, which causes a quick, almost avalanche.like boiling of the refrigerant with its evaporation, transition to a gaseous state and, accordingly, a sharp drop in temperature.
- The internal unit fan ensures the passage of the air flow in the room through the evaporator radiator. With its cooling.
- From the evaporator, the freon enters the compressor installation again, so the cycle closes.
The design of the throttle device can be different. from a capillary tube to a complex multi.way tap, which allows not only to accurately adjust the temperature of the freon cooling temperature. Such a mechanical stroke of the joint venture is the special “redirect” the activities of the blocks, turning the evaporator into a capacitor and vice versa. this is used to switch many models of air conditioners into the “winter” mode. to the premises of the room.
Of course, modern air conditioners are high.tech devices with a lot of additional control, managers, service functions, but the principle of operation is unified.
The principle of operation of the air conditioner
To establish everything correctly, you should have an idea of the device and principle of operation of the air conditioner. It consists of a compressor and evaporative block interconnected by tubes. The compressor is mounted on the outer side of the wall, and the evaporator is installed in the room. Dear models have not one internal block, but several, which are connected to one compressor.
In the evaporative block, a refrigerant is supplied under high pressure. He enters the evaporator’s camera, expands there, boils, and its pairs begin to intensively absorb heat. During this process, water condensate is released and settles on the radiator of the evaporative block. From there, the moisture is sent to the tank and is displayed by the tube outside the building.
All this time, the compressor pumps out the evaporation of the refrigerant from the chamber, increasing the pressure behind the pump. As a result, the refrigerant heats up and turns from a liquid into a fog of a large density. In this state, the refrigerant enters the condensate chamber equipped with a radiator, cools with a fan and again turns into a liquid. In this form, it is again supplied under pressure in the nozzle of the evaporator and the workflow is repeated.
The efficiency of equipment and electricity consumption directly depend on operating conditions. If any heating device is located near the air conditioning, the compressor consumes more energy and more often fails. Classes can also cause a breakdown that got inside the system, and therefore carry out wet cleaning regularly and very carefully. You can not put the surface of the block various objects, as well as cover with something.
To exclude the evaporation of the refrigerant, during installation, all joints and joints should be carefully sealing. The external unit must be placed lower than the internal, and if possible in the cool place. It’s good if the block is constantly in the shade from the overhang of the roof or walls. Compliance with these conditions will ensure uninterrupted operation of the air conditioner and a comfortable climate in the premises.
|one. Fan||creates a stream of air blowing a capacitor|
|2. Capacitor||the radiator in which the cooling and condensation of the freon occurs. Air blown through the capacitor, respectively, heats up|
|3. Compressor||squeezes Freon and supports its movement along the refrigeration contour. The compressor is piston or spiral (scroll) type. Piston compressors are cheaper, but less reliable than spiral, especially at low outdoor temperatures|
|4. Management payment||installed only on inverter air conditioners. In non.inverter models, they try to place all the electronics in the internal block, since large changes in temperature and humidity reduce the reliability of electronic components|
|5. Four.way valve||installed in reverse (heat. cold) air conditioners. In heating mode, this valve changes the direction of the freon movement. At the same time, the internal and outer block, as it were, change places: the internal unit works for heating, and the outer unit for cooling|
|6. Steper compounds||Copper pipes connecting the outer and internal blocks are connected to them|
|7. The filter of the freon system||It is installed in front of the compressor entrance and protects it from copper crumbs and other small particles that can get into the system when installing the air conditioner. Of course, if the installation is made in violation of the technology and a large amount of garbage got into the system, then the filter will not help|
|eight. Protective fast.removable cover||Closes the studio compounds and the terminal used to connect electric cables. In some models, the protective cover covers only the terminal, and the fitting compounds remain outside|
The internal block of the air conditioner
|one. Front Panel||is a plastic grill through which air enters the block. The panel is easily removed to serve the air conditioner (cleaning filters and t. P.)|
|2. Carriage filter||It is a plastic grid and is designed to delay large dust, animal hair, etc. P. For the normal operation of the air conditioning, the filter must be cleaned at least twice a month|
|3. Filter filter||There are various types: coal (removes unpleasant odors), electrostatic (delayed fine dust), etc. P. The presence or absence of filters of fine cleaning of no effect on the air conditioner does not have|
|4. Fan||has 3. 4 rotation speeds|
|5. Evaporator||a radiator in which the cold freon is heated and its evaporation. Air blown through the radiator, respectively, is cooled|
|6. Horizontal blinds||Emplay the direction of the air flow vertically. These blinds have an electric drive and their position can be adjusted from the remote control panel. In addition, blinds can automatically make oscillatory movements for uniform distribution of the air flow through the room|
|7. Indicator panel||On the front panel of the air conditioner, indicators (LEDs) showing the operating mode of the air conditioner and signaling possible malfunctions are installed|
|eight. Vertical blinds||Serve to adjust the direction of air flow horizontally. In household air conditioners, the position of these blinds can only be adjusted by hand. The possibility of adjusting from the remote control is only in some premium air conditioners models|
|Patron for condensate||Located under the evaporator and serves to collect condensate (water formed on the surface of a cold evaporator). Water is excreted from the pallet through the drainage hose|
|Management payment||usually located on the right side of the inner block. On this board there is an electronics block with the central microprocessor|
|Steper compounds||located in the lower rear of the inner block. Copper pipes connecting the outer and internal blocks are connected to them|
Do you need permission
The installation of household air conditioners does not affect the bearing capacity of buildings. Holes are drilled for installation and the intervention into the integrity of the bearing wall ends on this. But in order to comply with the law, residents of apartment buildings should be coordinated with the management company. External walls are the common property of residents of an apartment building and to install an external corps is necessary for other residents of the house.
If the split system is installed in a private house, approval is not needed.
To install the outdoor unit in the office, institution, it is necessary to coordinate the owner of the building.
The legislation does not have a strict requirement for the need for the written consent of the neighbors, so this norm is ignored.