How to choose a tile adhesive for a warm floor analysis of the nuances of the technology of its application
Ceramic floor tiles. the material, which has a lot of undeniable priorities, but one significant drawback. high thermal conductivity. Therefore, it is often laid over a water or electric heating system, called “warm floor”. Technologies and schemes of gluing ceramic floor tiles to the surface of the floor, which includes a heating system, are similar to the methods of its conventional installation. But there is a difference: you have to use a specific tile adhesive for underfloor heating, otherwise the tile will not last more than three to four weeks.
Brands of tile adhesive for installation of underfloor heating
Tile glue for underfloor heating is made by most major European and domestic manufacturers.
The most popular are dry mixes and ready-to-use compositions of the following brands:
BioSpec MD Seam Heat Welding. Mannington Commercial
EVOSTIK is a relatively new type of tile adhesive. Provides the tightest adhesion of the finishing material with a maximum joint thickness of 1 cm. EVOSTIK is sold as a dry mix, for making your own mortar.
What is the best tile adhesive to choose for a warm floor?
Install the heating mat and thin heating cable under the tiles using a special adhesive. To determine which tile adhesive for underfloor heating is better to use, it is worth taking note of the type of floor covering, the composition of the solution used and the nuances of its application. This is what we will discuss in the article.
Glue MIRA 3130 superfix, 15 kg, for tiles (underfloor heating)
Tile glue Mira 3130 superfix. Highly flexible glue made in Ukraine (Paris, France).MIRA 3130 (cement-based), for tile laying on the walls and on the floor, inside and outside, in damp and dry premises, on the bases with deformation.
Properties: highly elastic, water-resistant, frost-resistant
It is applied for laying of all types of ceramic and clinker tiles, and also a natural stone inside and outside, on walls and a floor, in dry and damp zones. Especially suitable for underfloor heating and thin translucent tiles, glass mosaics, light marble, etc.д. Also used on terraces and balconies.
Preparing the base: the surface must be dry, stable, solid, and free from dust, dirt, grease, and other debris. Remains of the concrete mortar should be removed, and weak parts of the surface should be removed and caulked. Dust should be removed with a vacuum cleaner, and grease, oil and dirt should be removed with a 7110 base cleaner. Prim absorbent surfaces with mira 4180 primer diluted with water in the ratio of 1 part 4180 primer to 3 parts water. Non-absorbent surfaces, e.g. ceramic tiles, etc., do not need a primer.
Execution of works: 15 kg of the powder is mixed with 3.75-4.20 liters of water until homogeneous mass. Leave mixed with water for 20 minutes, and then stir well, after which the adhesive is ready for use. The glue must be used within 6 hours after mixing. It is not recommended to apply adhesive to a surface larger than can be covered with tiles before a film of adhesive appears on the surface. It is applied with the smooth side of the trowel and well distributed over the entire surface, then smoothed with the serrated side. Tooth size depends on tile size.
When installing tiles on balconies, facades, swimming pools it is necessary to apply glue twice: on the surface and on the tile itself to ensure 100% coverage with glue. Filling of joints is usually allowed after 10 hours on walls and after 18 hours on floors, depending on tile absorption and air temperature
The glue contains cement, which gives a highly alkaline reaction when combined with water. 3130 is based on chromium-free white cement. Protect skin and eyes. In case of contact with skin or eyes, flush irritated areas with water and consult a doctor. Keep out of reach of children.
Avoid exposure to moisture during storage and transportation. Shelf life. 1 year from date of manufacture in original and undamaged packaging
Packed in 5 and 15 kg paper bags with a layer of polyethylene and handles for transportation.
General advice for the use of the adhesive
Underfloor heating can be of two types, each with its own technical features. They have a direct impact on the choice and technology of application of adhesive for porcelain stoneware on warm floors.
Electric underfloor heating. Can be with the use of modern infrared panels or traditional electric wires. Both have a small thickness, which makes it possible to lay porcelain stoneware without preparing a special cement-sand screed. In this case, the thickness of the adhesive in the range of 0.8-1.5 cm. When selecting the composition, carefully study the instructions, the manufacturers should specify the maximum possible thickness of the material without cracking during setting. Another nuance. Polyethylene films of infrared heating are destroyed under the influence of aggressive chemical compositions. If the adhesive contains such additives, then it is strictly forbidden to put it directly on the infrared mats, they must necessarily be covered with any protective substrate.
The greater the area of contact between the tiles and the heating elements, the greater the efficiency of the system. When working, do not leave air s between tiles and substrate surface, they reduce the thermal conductivity. In addition, large-sized porcelain tiles, due to air s, have different temperatures in different areas. Such a difference has a negative impact on the durability of the floor covering.
Floor heating adhesive, elastic adhesive
Underfloor heating. Not just a trendy trend, but a vision of true living comfort. A superficial study of technology often ends in trouble: The adhesive for underfloor heating or resilient adhesive requires a special approach.
The problem that awaits inexperienced tilers. Different coefficients of expansion of ceramic tiles and standard glue composition. Under the influence of periodic heating, the tiles can not withstand the resulting stresses and burst or simply. To avoid this, you need to buy glue for underfloor heating.
Manufacturers of adhesive mixtures responded to the problem and make compositions of high elasticity, preserving the ability to periodic deformations after curing. There will be no trouble with tiles if you buy elastic adhesive, mix it properly and follow the special rules of tiling.
Facing in the system “warm floor
Ceramic tile is probably one of the most practical solutions for finishing floors in the bathroom, kitchen or hallway. Floor tiles are durable and not resistant to temperature fluctuations, it is not afraid of high humidity and incredibly easy to care. And the incredibly wide palette of colors, designs and shapes will impress even the most discerning customers.
Ceramic has only one disadvantage. it has an unpleasant cold surface. However, it can be easily fixed: you just need to install a floor heating system under the tile.
Especially now that this service is becoming more and more popular. In our country the weather is not always warm. And therefore the desire of some owners to make an apartment with underfloor heating is absolutely natural. However, it should be noted that the floor heating system, heating and cooling, gives the substrate a certain mobility. That is why not every adhesive is suitable for underfloor heating cladding.
For underfloor heating you need a specialized compound with special characteristics (e.g. tile adhesive ilmax 3130). The composition of such glue for tiles includes special polymer additives, which give it a particular elasticity and the ability to reliably fix the tile on the base. That is, ilmax 3130 is able to withstand and compensate for the many temperature expansions and contractions of the base underneath. It is this property that allows you to use this adhesive for underfloor heating systems.
Several factors influence the final choice of floor heating adhesive:
Room humidity. It must be noted whether the adhesive is suitable for high humidity areas, like ilmax 3130. Surface type. Take note of whether the adhesive is suitable for gluing tiles to plasterboard, particleboard, OSB, underfloor heating or only to stable surfaces like concrete or cement. Tile type. Another point worth paying attention to. for what kind of tiles the composition is designed. There are glues for ordinary ceramic tiles, for gres tiles (have a higher adhesion) or for marble tiles (do not cause the yellowing of marble tiles or the appearance of stains).
There are the following types of adhesives for underfloor heating by composition:
Cement. Made on the basis of cement with the addition of special polymers and plasticizers, which give the composition a particular elasticity (for example, ilmax3130). Cement adhesives are the most popular because of their low price.
How to Tile Over a Heated Floor
Epoxy. Epoxy resin based composition is ideal for difficult tiling work. Securely fixes tiles and even compensates for differences in the substrate.
Dispersion. The glue has a paste-like structure and is very convenient for work with heavy, dense tiles. Stable for particleboard surfaces and also gives additional thermal insulation.
Polyurethane. It is the most flexible glue, suitable for the most difficult bases.
The more complex composition of the floor heating glue guarantees its special properties:
Not afraid of high or low temperatures (from.20°C to 20°C).30 to 70?С). Creates a particularly strong and secure bond between the floor tiles and the substrate. Does not have a negative effect on the heating of underfloor heating.
Preparation of mortar includes several basic steps:
Surface preparation. It must be dry, clean and stable. Before applying ilmax 3130 underfloor heating adhesive, it is advisable to prime the subfloor with ilmax 4180 primer, this will improve the adhesion of the adhesive to the subfloor. If the base is very hard, it’s better to use ilmax4175 concrete-contact primer.
Mortar preparation. Technologically the preparation of the floor heating glue is no different from the usual glue. Pour the dry mixture into clean water at room temperature and mix well with a construction mixer, so that there are no lumps. After 5 minutes, we mix the mixture again. and you can use it for 2 hours.
Tile laying. We spread the adhesive solution on the surface of the floor with a trowel or smooth side of a toothed trowel. And then we spread the tile glue with the toothed side of the float (the bigger the size of the tile, the bigger the tooth of the float).
Remember that after applying the mortar, we have only 15 minutes to glue the tiles. However, this time strongly depends on the temperature of the air, its humidity, the presence of wind or drafts in the room, as well as on how strongly the base absorbs water. How to know if you can still glue the tiles? Simply touch the adhesive solution with your fingers. If the glue stays on your fingers, then you’re okay and the tiles can be glued. If nothing remains on your fingers, the mortar will have to be removed and fresh one will have to be applied.
Then press the tile into the glue layer. Immediately remove all mortar that got into the joints of the tiles. The position of the ceramic tile can be adjusted for another 15 minutes, after which you should avoid any mechanical influences on the surface of the facing. Do not glue tiles while the floor heating system is on. the glue will dry out very quickly and will not give the necessary adhesion.
Why do you need special glue?
During operation, the floor heating causes all flooring elements to heat up. Materials expand when heated and contract when cooled. Similarly behaves and adhesive composition, on which the tiles or porcelain tiles are laid. That is why conventional glue for installing underfloor heating is not suitable: it will quickly crack because of the low elasticity during regular heating and cooling.
When heated strongly at one time, simple glue can even separate from the surface and crumble. Spoiling of the adhesive composition entails the accumulation of air in the cracks, due to which the thermal conductivity is reduced.
How to avoid these problems? It is necessary to choose specialized tile compositions that can easily withstand differences in temperature within.30 100 degrees. They are highly elastic, reliably bond any material of the primary base (concrete, wood) with the finish, do not change the thermal conductivity of the entire structure. Adhesives are dry mixes, which must be properly diluted before use, or ready-made cans.
What the glue is good for
Elastic heat-resistant adhesive can be used in most varieties of floor heating systems by direct application to the heating elements. Nevertheless, the film (infrared) type floors require the use of levelling compounds before bonding. Otherwise, there is a risk of destruction of the elements of the system, which will quickly fail. When buying glue, you need to make sure that it is suitable for a particular type of system, which is always indicated on the packaging.
Underfloor heating. Underfloor heating.Heating cable.
Making repairs to the house, many masters recommend making warm floors. This is very good, especially if the winter is not as warm as desired, and even more so if young children are at home! They can’t resist crawling around the house. However, when installing underfloor heating, the question arises: what kind of tile adhesive is suitable for underfloor heating?
As a rule, ceramic tiles are laid on top of underfloor heating. A warm tile will not cause any discomfort if a person steps on it. Is there a need for special glue, if the tiles will be laid on a warm floor? Or may well be suitable ordinary?
The fact that the floor heating is fundamentally different from all other coatings. This is where it is appropriate to consider sudden changes in temperature. When using conventional glue, do not allow the surface to heat up and cool down, because when it cools down, the glue will crack and shrink. This will lead to the fact that under the tile will form a void. The glue, figuratively speaking, will just dry. Heat will cease to flow so easily into the room. The tile, of course, will crack, and this is not only the moral frustration, but also the financial damage. Therefore it is better to foresee everything in advance and choose a special adhesive, which is suitable for use on heated floors.
To choose a truly suitable adhesive, you need to consider many factors. Glue must have an elastic structure, easy to apply. In addition, it must be durable, because we are talking about the floors, which will be under constant stress. When choosing a glue you need to look at the permissible temperature range. It is better if the range of its application will be from minus 30 degrees to plus 150 degrees. In addition, it must be able to withstand temperature fluctuations.
To better meet these standards, the adhesive should contain polymer modifiers. They help protect the adhesive mixture from shrinking when cooled and expanding when heated. And as already mentioned, it is a very important factor. On the packaging of the goods should be specified, how many drops of adhesive will withstand without deforming the size and shape.
The choice of adhesive mixtures is simply unlimited. It is necessary to take into account what humidity will be in the room, as well as where the work itself will be carried out, take into account the very characteristics of the tiles. Depending on these factors will be chosen adhesive with different properties.
By composition types of adhesives are divided into one-component, two-component and cement. The former are good for amateurs, they are long drying and do not require special skills for application, they are sold as a ready-made paste. Two-component adhesives usually consist of several substances that need to be mixed in the process. The composition, as a rule, includes epoxy resins and polyurethane. Cement-based glue has a form of powder, which must be diluted in water. Specialists advise to use M500 glue. It is in this kind of glue is added a large amount of plasticizers. It protects the adhesive layer from deformation in the process of contact with the warm floor.
One-component adhesives have only one advantage. Ten to twenty minutes after the glue has been applied, it is possible to change the location of the tiles, if something has been done wrong. Two-part adhesives have a good reputation. They are resistant to temperature fluctuations, ensuring good adhesion.
Before you start using a new adhesive, you should always read the instructions. The more precisely the master will adhere to it, the higher quality will be his work. It is important to clearly observe the method of mixing, application, drying time and proportions. Also, you can not prepare the adhesive “with reserve”. Already three hours after the preparation of the adhesive, it begins to lose its properties.
Before applying the adhesive to the surface, you must, as usual, clean it of paint, grease, varnish or other impurities.
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It is necessary to determine how much glue should be used on a particular unit of the floor. This will depend on the size of the tile side. The larger it is, the more glue can be used. That is, if the side of the tile is about thirty centimeters, then the treatment area will be about 0.7 square meters. If the tile is very large, you can apply glue immediately to a surface of up to one square meter. The applied compound must be “combed”. The larger the elements in the work, the larger the teeth should be on the spatula for combing. This ensures quality adhesion.
It is necessary to pay considerable attention to caulking. This adds strength to the coating and keeps the adhesive from cracking. For uniform joints use special crosses made of plastic. One day after the completion of laying tiles can proceed to grouting joints. You can begin to use the floor only after the final hardening of the adhesive! The curing time is listed in the instructions of each individual adhesive.
Knowing these requirements and factors, you don’t have to worry and install underfloor heating at home!
Heating cable and screed.- here.
Underfloor heating: installation and installation on extruded polystyrene foam here.