Alternative energy solar power plant
- Durability, reliability of the equipment. The manufacturers give a 25 year warranty on good batteries.
- Installation is simple and it is possible to carry out, even independently without resorting to the help of specialists. Typically, the batteries come with fasteners, which are used to install the structure.
- Ease of maintenance, namely, the lack of it. The only thing you should do is to clean the surface of the panel from dirt and snow, so as not to reduce the space open to the sun.
Learn more about solar panels and their benefits at https://pv-sys.ru.
- produce little power in the winter period. Efficiency decreases many times over. This disadvantage is not critical if you live in a southern climate. Or in cases where the plant is installed in a dacha, which is not intended for year-round residence.
- Strong dependence on the weather, since even in summer there can be cloudy days and the amount of energy produced will automatically decrease.
When solar and wind energy is used together to generate electricity, the system becomes more reliable. When using multiple energy sources, the batteries can be reduced in size. Unlike solar modules, wind turbines produce cheaper electricity. In such hybrid wind farms are installed wind turbines, photovoltaic modules and other components of high quality, which are reliable and durable.
Such installations can be used for any objects, and these systems are designed so that they can be combined with diesel generators and centralized electricity supply. A hybrid power plant comes standard with:
- wind generator
- solar panels
- solar controller (MRRT)
- inverter with charger
- circuit breaker
- helium batteries
- cable for connection to batteries
- Cable for wind turbine generator
- cable for photovoltaic modules
- temperature sensor
Solar power plant.
Solar panels need sunlight to generate electricity, and the nominal output is achieved in summer when the sun is at its zenith, t.е. 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., depending on the region. Power drops in the morning and evening, and in winter with cloudy weather can produce 10-20% of the rating, or even less. For maximum efficiency, solar panels are installed on the roof or special structures on the ground, at an angle of 30-60gr to the horizon. The cost of mountings and mounting elements for solar panels is lower than for the wind generator, as well as the plus is that they are easier to install.
The equipment for a solar power plant includes:
Wind turbine or solar panels which to choose?
To balance the flow of energy from alternative sources, there is often a desire to combine solar panels and a wind turbine in one system.
When it is worth it and what source of alternative energy to choose, you can understand, considering the pros and cons of wind turbines and solar panels.
- Reliability quality panels from a reputable global manufacturer will last 25 years or more, since they have no moving parts, and any electronics in its composition, and the tempered glass, durable aluminum frame and reliable sealing of the elements ensures trouble-free operation of the panels in all weather conditions at any temperature.
- Easy to install with the help of standard mounting kits, you can easily fix the panels on the roof or on the wall of the house.
- No maintenance is necessary The only thing recommended to increase energy production is to wash the surface of the solar panels with glass cleaner once a year, but even this is not necessary.
Disadvantages of solar panels:
- Low average daily production of electricity in winter time 5-10 times less than in summer for the middle belt of Russia, 2-3 times less than for southern regions and a complete lack of production in winter in northern regions beyond the Arctic Circle. To compensate for the lack of electricity must use a diesel generator, gasoline generator or wind generator.
- Strong dependence of the electricity production on the weather. In cloudy weather the production is reduced to 5-20% compared to cloudless sunny weather. However, you can eliminate this dependence in an autonomous solar power plant by applying high-capacity batteries, providing a stock of electricity for 5-7 days.
- Production of electricity does not depend on the time of day and time of year, if there is a wind.
- In areas where the wind blows frequently (mountains, steppes, riversides and seaside), the wind turbine can generate significant amounts of electricity. However the total area of such places inhabited by people in Russian Federation is less than 1% of all inhabited places.
- Necessity of installation on a mast of height more than 25 meters in 99% of the Russian Federation, as residential areas and forests strongly reduce the wind speed close to the ground cost of wind turbines installation will many times exceed the cost of the generator.
- With an average wind speed in Russia of 3-4 meters per second, a wind generator will produce about 1-3% of its nominal capacity. Rated capacity of wind turbine generator is indicated for the wind speed of 10-12 m/sec.
- Lack of reliability in the segment of low-power wind turbines with capacity below 10 kW most of the cheap low-power wind turbines do not operate for more than 2 years without the breakage, although there are cases of the wind turbines working for 8 years. If you know the facts of prolonged work without failure, share it with everyone on our forum.
- The need for annual maintenance to keep the wind turbine in working order.
- Freezing of the lubricant at subzero temperatures leads to inability to start the wind turbine in winter.
- Whistling of small wind turbines operating at high revolutions at high wind speeds will not please you or your neighbors.
- Low-frequency infrasound powerful wind turbines at any wind speed and low-power wind turbines at low wind speeds as we know, infrasound has a negative impact on human health and all life. It is for this reason, industrial wind power plants are located at a considerable distance from residential areas.
Using a wind turbine, as an additional source of energy to the solar power plant makes economic sense only in areas where the wind blows frequently, provided that there is an opportunity to install it away from homes. In this case it is necessary to install a reliable powerful model with a capacity of 10 kW and be sure to carry out their annual maintenance.
On whether it makes economic sense to install solar panels, read here.
Wind turbine or solar panels is the question 🙂
Wind turbines or solar panels, what is better to choose?
Today’s article prompted me to write the fact that from time to time stubbornly continues to sound the question: What is better to use as an alternative source of electrical energy, wind turbines, solar panels? I’m sure those who already consider themselves to be “alternatives” with experience similar question “Cuts my ear”.
Indeed, to feel the answer to it should at least a couple of years to gather up the pieces of such a coveted Watts. And seriously speaking, it is equivalent to the question: What is better to use hydro or thermal power plant? Where there is a river and its flow makes hydroelectric power possible, the choice is obvious if only because its kilowatt will be cheaper. Well, and where there is no river you still need to set up a thermal power plant.
Of course, each of the options is capable of meeting the objectives under certain specific conditions. Each has advantages and disadvantages which we have to take into account when choosing the one that best meets our needs and expectations.
This applies equally to the choice of a wind turbine or solar panel. Where facilities are open, as they say, to all winds, use of a wind turbine is inevitable. But, by and large, this does not preclude the use of home power plants on solar panels.
over, this feature of alternative sources should be used to our advantage. What I mean? Suppose you want to provide yourself with electricity from an alternative source in an area of systematic and regular winds. The choice of wind turbine or wind turbines (the number is a separate issue) for you is obvious. I agree with you. BUT!
Absolutely, consider using solar panels, too. What percentage to distribute the total capacity between them is a matter of calculation. importantly, it should be taken into account that if there is seasonality in your area, then no doubt there will be periods when the performance of the wind turbine will decrease significantly, but in the same period the performance of the solar panel will increase. Thereby eliminating the seasonal dip from your entire period of electricity consumption.
The same can be applied to areas with a predominance of solar radiation. Not to consider the use of wind turbines at all would be at least unprofitable.
In other words, it is advisable to use the wind turbine, solar panels together. In the middle belt of Russia in the summer, the main load is on the solar panels. That’s understandable. Daylight hours are longer, the sun is higher. In the spring and fall, if you don’t take into account the reflection of the snow in March and even more so in winter, there are no leaves on the trees, the spaces are open to the wind. This is where the wind turbine becomes the King.
I’ve always had my preference for solar panels. Silent toilers. Nothing to break, no mechanical rotating parts. However, I would never advise to be limited to solar panels only. I admit that there may be areas where it is appropriate to use only either a wind generator or solar panels. But this is rather the exception than the rule.
The cost of equipment
To install an autonomous household power plant, in addition to solar panels and a generator with blades will need the following:
You can order a “turnkey” modern power plant that uses the wind or solar energy. It is incorrect to talk about the cost of 1 kW in an autonomous system, because the question is the presence or absence of electricity.
The service life of solar panels is about 10 years longer. Payback to calculate the project will be easier if you have an income generating household plots, to adjust which would be impossible in principle without electricity.
Installation and wiring
Components in the hybrid system are installed as in the case of independent installation. Solar panels are placed on the roof or on a separate mounting truss (in this case you can optimally adjust their slope relative to the horizon), and wind turbines. on masts near the house.
Despite the fact that the rotation of the blades of wind turbines produce a specific sound (which many attribute to their disadvantages), they do not create additional inconvenience. The fact that the sound is quite monotonous and not sharp, so people very quickly stop noticing it.
Connection is carried out according to the classic scheme. Wind generator and solar panels through the controller are commutated to the battery, where the generated energy is stored. AC consumers are connected through an inverter.
Why solar panels and wind turbines are unprofitable. Consider all the nuances
They even provide a graph like this for the cost of energy from various sources :
The cost of electricity generation in different ways
Looking ahead, we can say that any market trader, looking at this graph, would say that trading in electricity produced by thermal coal and gas-fired power plants, as well as nuclear power plants is not profitable and who trades in them. go bankrupt.
Nevertheless, for some reason, it is the traders of the cheapest energy who receive subsidies, while the traders of expensive energy have to pay those subsidies.
Let’s get as much detail as possible about how things really are, and where the “dog is in the hole”!
Energy can be measured in different physical units.In physics in Joules (SI).In the energy industry and in life, historically, in kWh, calories, kilograms and even volume units. liters and barrels.
You’d think there’s no big deal. You could easily count it upFor example, 1 kWh equals 3,600,000 J.
But it’s not that simple. Recalculation depends on what energy is counted!
For example if you want to heat your house, you can turn on, for example, an iron and get 1 kWh and get the same amount of heat as if you burn 73 grams of natural gas .
But if it is necessary to do mechanical energy (work), then the calculation changes dramatically.
1 kWh of electricity practically without losses will be transformed into mechanical energy, and the thermal energy needs 2.5 times in large power plants (efficiency of 40%) and 3 times at home (gasoline generator, efficiency of 33%), that is already about 200 grams of natural gas.
The same difference is observed, for example, in the loaf. If you calculate how many calories are in a loaf of bread, it turns out that it is much less than the cost of its production. And if you consider the energy of the sun, which the wheat receives, so in general.
This is a consequence of the fact that it is not just energy, but energy in a certain form, which can be consumed by humans. Pay attention to this. This fact will be needed in the future.
There is another difference, but it is already in economics, and about it will be a little later.
In order to correctly calculate all the energy used in production, we must, roughly speaking, put energy meters in the plant and see how much oil, gas, coal, and electricity the plant consumed and how much production it produced.
And here comes the first gap in the calculations.
The energy costs are borne not only by the end plant, but also by the suppliers of components. Large allied suppliers, such as suppliers of basic raw materials, are taken into account, but the “small stuff”, of which there is a great deal. no!
If a screw is used, then you should also get from the supplier of the screw how much energy he spent to produce that screw and add it to the energy cost of production.
And so on through all the chains. Starting with the extraction of ore and other minerals, including hydrocarbons, not for the purpose of energy, but for the purpose of production, of some product, such as plastic.
And the authors of the calculations do not bother to count all the “pennies”, at least I have not seen anywhere position “energy costs for the production of screws that are used for the assembly”. And in total, these pennies can give any large contribution.
In the same estimates of energy costs that I have seen, the authors do not even try to evaluate the fixed assets (the machines themselves for production) and the energy used to produce them. But you can’t make products without them. In fact, they are “disposable” allied workers from the previous point.
And there’s no way to take into account the energy costs of labor.
Of course we can argue that the expensive human labor will eventually be replaced by robots, “whose speed is limited only by air resistance” ( Elon Musk), but at least then we must consider the energy required to produce these robots and the energy they will consume for their work.
And it’s not a fact that it’s more profitable energy-wise than manual labor! Again, Elon Musk and his tent, where Mexicans assembled Tesla electric cars instead of robots, would not lie!))
- By the energy a person “leaves” in the factory? And if it is an operator who only presses buttons or just a controller who monitors the instrument readings?
- For all (or a fraction) of the energy a person gets for their existence? So to speak, by the daily bread ration?
- By the energy it takes to grow and cook this ration of loafa?
- (see. above about the energy loaf)
There are also quite obscure energy articles. Some even consider them as “parasitic”.
For example, a vacation to the sea or a trip to the movies or casinos. Or a haircut for your beloved dog at the dog groomer. Should these energy costs be included in the energy cost of output?
As you can see, there are a lot of questions. Let’s leave them unanswered for now and move on to the next problem, which is exactly related to the last question.
Or, if you like, in terms of Marxism. surplus value. It would seem that what does energy have to do with anything, when it is a financial and even virtual category, given that it is now zeros on electronic bills?
But the profits are ultimately spent on generating energy. in the form of new machines, to expand production or even a new secretary, with reduced social responsibility.
We can say that, at least part of the “parasitic” categories on which the profit goes, can be ignored. But without these parasitic categories will the entrepreneur build the plant, operate it, and so on? Wouldn’t he then prefer to go to Thailand, live under a palm tree, and eat coconuts and bananas falling on him? Would not the world be left without panels and wind turbines??
Yes, history has known cases where people really worked for a loaf of bread and were happy. But we are looking at a more or less free market, where entrepreneurs and workers do not perform their functions under external coercion, but on the basis of internal incentives, even if this is a “stupid” desire to make money.
- Some of the technological processes and components are not taken into account.
- The energy costs of labor are not taken into account.
- The energy costs of motivating entrepreneurs and expanding production are not taken into account.
Some say that although the EROEI methodology is not without flaws, but if the same methodology is counted, then relative to each other, different types of generation will occupy the “right” position in terms of the cost of electricity. And RES has an EROEI greater than 1, about 10-15, as noted at the beginning of the article, and their unprofitability is due to the higher EROEI of oil, gas and coal so far.
But as easily available fossil energy is exhausted, when its EROEI becomes less than EROEI of renewable energy, then economically renewable energy will become profitable, and fossil fuels on the contrary will begin to suffer losses. And since no one will support it with various subsidies, fossil fuel generation will die and only clean energy of panels and wind turbines will remain.
- Since the processes have different share of unaccounted technological chains and labor (profit can be assumed equal), and their “not accounting” will lead to a distorted picture. And may even lead to a rearrangement of their places, in terms of production costs.
- Panels and wind turbines are produced using classic generation, on fossil fuels, as only about 4% of the world (5.2% by the failed 2020, when classic generation declined, and RES were left untouched as a sacred cow).
As we can see, the EROEI method for assessing the profitability of energy production, although methodologically it provides a completely correct approach, in its concrete implementation has significant fundamental flaws, which can not be corrected in a more or less correct way.
Meanwhile, mankind has long since invented a way to estimate costs, including energy. And its name is. money.
Yes, this method is also not without flaws, especially in the context of the modern financial system. But it automatically takes into account all the energy needs of production, its employees and owners.
But if you use this method within one country and there are no inter-country distortions in exchange rates, then you will get very accurate results on the correlation between the return on financial investment / financial investment and EROEI.
Note:given that the main production of solar panels is in China, and that the RMB exchange rate is undervalued in
1.5 times, then the real value of Chinese panels is up to 1.5 times higher than they cost now for Europe. Since it is clear that not everything in China has intra-Chinese prices.Oil is obtained at world prices, while gas, although cheaper than in Europe, is still imported.Although there is local, cheap Chinese coal.
So, from this reasoning, it becomes clear that estimating energy efficiency based on financial efficiency is much more correct than trying to calculate energy efficiency, since the latter calculation will have large errors.
But maybe that’s it. general considerations that have nothing to do with reality? Let’s try this method in practice.
Suppose you are in the U.S. and you have X amount of dollars, for example, a million or a billion. Consider several options for investing this amount.
Investing in an oil or gas field
You’re putting yourself out in the field. You have the initial costs of buying a permit from the government, buying/renting land, exploration, field development, and the ongoing costs of producing and transporting oil. You don’t need to ask for special conditions for selling your products. You adjust to the market.
The experience of oil companies shows that under such conditions they remain in profit, even though they do not receive any subsidies from the state, but rather pay taxes and other deductions.
The alternative is. buy fuel for power plants in the market, and now it owes you so much wholesale electricity.
In this case, power plants do not receive any subsidies, but rather pay taxes and deductions to the state in favor of renewable energy sources.
Here, assume that you have zero or negligible profit. Since you don’t produce any oil, coal, or gas, you simply buy resources on the market and convert them into electricity.
And then you get the brilliant idea that it would be nice to increase your capital, using free energy of the sun and wind!
And you for the entire amount X buy solar panels in China. It is even possible to barter. You give them the electricity in the U.S., they give you the panels.You bring the panels back to the States and you install them.
And then you find out that for all the time you will be getting free electricity from the panels, you will get less of it than if you had just bought kWh from the power plants at once for all that amount. And so you have an energy and financial loss.
Then you run to the eco-activists, tell them about the scientific consensus on warming on earth.
Then you and the eco-activists and the drooling Greta Tumberg go to the government and tell them that you’re saving the planet and that without you the planet would die. it will be flooded by melted glaciers, the CO2 emissions will fry everyone like devils in a frying pan and all that.
The government gets scared and you get subsidies of one kind or another. and you manage to break even or even make some money.
The type of subsidies can be quite different. The ones I encountered, I will tell you about in a separate article.
I would like to give an example from my own experience with financial EROEI.
We calculated the cost per kWh when installing solar panels at our dacha . Those who wish can read the detailed calculations. Now just take the results:
This option has a subsidy from the grid (if it is not clear how and why. will be a separate article), but life has a familiar look with obtaining electricity on demand, not by nature.
As can be seen in all variants the cost is more expensive than the network (2.2 rubles/kWh).)
But let’s level out the exchange rate difference with China, where they make solar panels and batteries.
️Which is Better Solar Energy or Wind Energy?
To do this you need to lower the dollar rate against the ruble by half. All ruble inside Russia remain unchanged, including electricity.
It does not matter, in this context, how it can be done, whether there are enough foreign currency reserves, and what taxes, duties, etc.д. domestic will remain unchanged.
Then the price of kWh becomes 2.4 rubles. It’s still expensive for us, but in some regions , it is already becoming profitable to install solar panels!
Let’s equalize the rate not with China, but with Europe. The Chinese exchange rate is undervalued by a factor of 1.5 against the European currency.
Then the price per kWh becomes 1.6 rubles. This is profitable for us too!
Look how interesting it turns out. The physical EROEI does not change at all from our exchange rate manipulations. At the same time, the financial EROEI changes, and it is the EROEI that allows us to find out whether or not it is profitable to use solar panels!!
I hope, now based on general considerations and concrete examples it is clear to you, that current parameters of renewable energy sources are unprofitable and consume more “dirty” energy in their production, than give pure energy in their work. And so they leave a larger carbon footprint. And the production of panels and wind turbines does not contribute to reducing the rate of heating of the planet, but rather accelerate this process.
P.S.I am not against the development of renewable energy at all. But we should conduct research, seek new ways to economically produce renewable energy sources. And only when these ways will be found will we start their widespread introduction!
And the current implementation of wind turbines and panels is the second stupidest after the burning of electricity to mine various cryptocurrencies.
Preliminary studies and consultations
To install the wind turbine must give consent to the neighbors. This requirement can stop the work at the very beginning. Usually homeowners who live on the outskirts of settlements and have land plots of more than 1 hectare decide to install RES, which allows them not to ask the opinion of their fellow villagers. In any case, you can not avoid the environmental impact assessment, as the generator’s blades are potentially dangerous to the nesting birds in your area.
It is best to install the equipment on top of the hill, even if it is at some distance from the house and outbuildings. To study the wind potential it is necessary to obtain preliminary data from the proposed installation site. Since the blades of the wind turbine must be located at a height of 25-35 meters, it is necessary to build a steel mast. After receiving the foundation design from the specialists, you can start drilling holes. Reinforcement cages are prepared on the surface and lowered before the concrete is poured. Calculation of the amount of mortar is very important, because the entire monolithic layer must be laid at one time. Such strict requirements are due to the fact that the foundation will carry significant loads. The mast is mounted on bolted joints. On its top is installed freely rotating on the principle of the weather vane. From the time of connection to the computer wind monitoring station must pass 1 year in order to obtain an opinion on the economic feasibility of installing wind turbines. In case of negative conclusions, the mast can be dismantled and sold, and an outbuilding can be built on the foundation.
To install the solar panels, it is necessary to allocate a plot of land of about three acres, which allows you to place the frame, oriented strictly to the south. Mounting batteries on the roof, having a free space in the yard makes no sense. It will cost more and make it more difficult to solve the problem of the panels turning due to the changing trajectory of the sun in the sky. It should be noted that the wrong angle of inclination of the working surface reduces the efficiency of batteries by 30%.