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What difavtomat to install on a boiler

Online calculation of the difavtomat by power

This online calculator allows you to calculate the nominal current and the leakage of the difavtomat to protect household electrical networks by power. (Read more about the principle of operation, connection schemes and characteristics of the difavtomat cm. Article: differential circuit breaker).

Important: to protect against electric shock, dipavtomats with a differential current of not more than 30ma should be used, differential currents: 100, 300 and 500mas are used to protect against fires. If the difavtomat is necessary to protect against electric shock, and according to the calculation produced, the leakage current was more than 30ma, it is necessary to provide several difavtomats on different groups of lines, for example, one difavtomat for protecting sockets in rooms, and the second to protect sockets in the kitchen, reducing Thus, the power passing through each difavtomat and, as a result, lowering the current leakage, t.e. In this case, the calculation will need to be made for two or more difavtomats that will be installed on different lines.

Сборка 1-фазного щит: Вместо УЗО- дифавтомат. 4 дифа на 4 группы.

Remember also that to protect the household power supply, it is necessary to use differential circuit breakers with the “C” operation characteristic, and to protect the electric motors with the “D” operation characteristic. The characteristics of the operation of difavtomats are similar to the characteristics of the operation of circuit breakers Read more here.

Instructions for the use of a calculator of the calculation of the difavtomat:

  • We select the calculation method: simplified. the leakage of the difavtomat is determined on the basis of its purpose (such as the protected power grid); Professional. calculating the leakage currents of the difavtomat is made on the basis of the calculated current of the mains and its total length.
  • Choose the purpose of the difavtomat: the general protection of the household power supply. if the calculation is made for the difavtomat that is installed in the introductory electrical panel of the house and will provide general protection of the entire electro.processing; Protection of especially dangerous premises. if the calculation is carried out for a difavtomat that provides general protection of the electrical network in especially dangerous rooms, for example, in a bath, sauna, bathroom, shower, etc.D.; Protection of a separate electrical receiver. if the calculation is made for a difavtomat providing a separate electrical receiver, for example: washing machine, dishwasher, boiler, etc.D.
  • We indicate the power of the Vkilovatt electrical network (1 kilowatt = 1000watt), and select the type of power: “The maximum power permitted for use”. if the power is taken from the project (technical conditions) to the house (apartment) or from the contract for electricity supply; “The total capacity of all electrical appliances that will be connected to the electric network”. if the indicated capacity was obtained by summing up the capacities of all electrical equipment in the house (apartment) protected by this difavtomat; “Power of a particular electrical appliance”. if the indicated power belongs to one electrical receiver that will protect the calculated difavtomat (for example, the power of the washing machine if a separate difavtomat is installed on it), or the total power of the power receivers of which is simultaneously the inclusion of which occurs simultaneously.
  • Choose a 220 volt voltage for a single.phase network, or 380 volts. for three.phase.
  • Enter the length of the mains (all of its sections connected to the calculated difavtomat) in meters. the length must be entered only with a professional calculation method.
  • Press the “calculate” button

As a result of the calculation, we obtain the required standard values ​​of the rated current and differential current (leakage current) of the dipavtomat that can provide reliable protection of your power grid.

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How to choose the right difavtomat

Protection against short circuit and current overload in the electrical wiring is carried out by automatic circuit breakers (AB), and protection against electric shock and current leakage in the electrical wiring performs a protective shutdown (RCD).

Differential machine carries two AB and RCD protection functions in one device. Separate devices for the protection of AB and RCD, and differential automata have their advantages and disadvantages for different use.

In what cases do differential automata choose

Each apartment has a sufficient number of electrical appliances. And they all must have their own individual protection. If an electric bundle, oven, washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, boiler, hall, bedrooms, children’s, etc. D. put separate automatic machine AB and RCD, then what size an electric shield will be. This is the main advantage of the differential machine.

Also, if the RCD is required to choose a current 1-2 orders higher than the rated current of the AB machine, then the differential machine is selected only for the optimal current protection current and overload. And so we stopped choosing a differential machine for an apartment or house. Now it is necessary to decide on the characteristics of the device in each specific case.

The choice of optimal current. The value of the differential machine gun is selected depending on the load of the electrical appliance, lighting power or cross.sectional power of the electrical wiring. There are differential machines with current parameters C6, C10 (for lighting), C16, C25, C40, C50, C63, C80, C100.

The leakage current is this main parameter of protection that is expressed in milliamps (ma) and is indicated by a symbol. If Dif. The machine is placed immediately due to the counter, then the leakage current is selected 300 mA for the house, or 100ma for the apartment. For individual groups, the leakage current select 30 mA, and separate networks 10 mA.

By voltage. There are differential devices at 380 V and 220 V. For a three.phase network, 380 in the device has four contacts at the top and bottom, one of which is a working zero.

The choice of a differential leakage current machine

Type. Devices are divided by type of leakage current of AS and A. AC automatic machines are used for alternating leakage current, and type A devices are triggered from a direct leakage current. Thus, Dif. Type A machine guns are used to protect electronic devices, such as televisions, computers and even dishwasher or washing machines, where the AC AC ACAs ineffectively reacts to a constant leakage current.

Zero cliff protection. For the proper operation of the difavtomat, a 220 V network is required (phase and zero). If for some reason the phase disappears, then the device will not work, since there is no leakage current. And if zero breaks off and a leakage current appears (raw walls with old electrical wiring, a breakdown of the insulation of wires in an electrical appliance, etc. D.), then the protection of the RCD will also not work t. to. There is no full power supply circuit for protection.

Difavtomat installation diagram with protective ground PE

There is a danger of an electric shock of a person. To exclude such a situation, the difavtomat must have protection against a zero cliff. If there is no such function in protecting the RCD, then you need to separately purchase and set the voltage relay with protection against a cliff of zero.

Which manufacturer of difavtomatov to choose

Saving on the protection of electric networks and protection against human current damage is not worth it. A high.quality protection device will last many years. This is much more profitable than installing cheap, not reliable protection options and change them every year. Popular brands are ABB (Swedes with Switzerland), Legrand (France), Schneider Electric (France), Siemens (Germany). These manufacturers have proven the reliability and quality of their products for many years.

It is important to install a protective device in electric networks with a protective conductor PE. When the leakage current appears through the conductor PE, the protection will immediately work. And if you use a working zero n instead of PE, then the leakage current will pass through a person to the ground, which is not very pleasant. The effectiveness of protection in this case will be much lower than in the first version.

It is possible to solve the problem of protecting the wiring from overload and leakage currents with the help of a pair of devices. a protective machine and RCD. But the same problem is solved by a differential protective machine, which combines both of these devices in one case. About the correct connection of the difavtomat and its choice and the speech will go further.

Purpose, technical characteristics and choice

Difavtomat or differential protection machine combines the functions of the protection machine and RCD. That is, this device alone protects the wiring from overload, short circuit and leakage current. The leakage current is formed with a malfunction of the insulation or when touching the livestock elements, that is, it still protects a person from electricity defeat.

Difavtomats are installed in electrical distribution shields, most often on din races. They are placed instead of a bundle of automaticuso, physically occupy a little less space. How specifically it depends on the manufacturer and the type of execution. And this is their main plus, which can be in demand when modernizing the network, when the place in the shield is limited, and it is necessary to connect a certain number of new lines.

Difavtomats are used to protect wiring from increased loads and a person from electricity damage

The second positive moment is the savings of funds. As a rule, a difavtomat costs less than a pair of automaticum with similar characteristics. Another positive point. it is necessary to decide only on the face value of the protection machine, and the RCD is built by default with the required characteristics.

There are also disadvantages: when you exit and build one of the parts of the difavtomat, you will have to change the whole device, and this is more expensive. Also, not all models are equipped with flags by which it is possible to determine why the device worked-due to overload or leakage current-which is fundamentally important when clarifying the reasons.

Difavtomati

Differential circuit breakers (difavtomats). switching mechanical devices that combine the functions of circuit breakers and RCDs (protective shutdown devices). Simply put, Dif. Automat = Automatus in one case.

Buy Difavtomata Eaton/Moeller, Hager, Legrand, Schneider in Kyiv with a discount right from the warehouse! Reviews and the best for differential machines in Ukraine, delivery to Kharkov, Vinnitsa, Dnieper, as well as Odessa, Lviv, Zhytomyr, Zaporozhye and other cities.

Let’s figure out in detail what is a differential circuit breaker or a reduction difavtomat. So, the differential machine is a modular device mounted on a standard Dean Ray and combining the functions of a protective shutdown device and circuit breaker.

This means that Diece Automat protects the network from overload and super.high currents of short circuit (short circuit), as well as a person from possible electric shock when touched electrical equipment that has been energized as a result of damage to isolation of isolation.

You can always buy a difavtomat in Kyiv with a discount right from the warehouse with delivery throughout Ukraine.

How the difavtomat works

Inside the differential machine, there is a thermal release that is responsible for turning off the mains during overloading and an electromagnetic processor, which instantly turns off the device when a short circuit in the line occurs in the line. The thermal release does not act instantly, but with a certain exposure of time. It is inversely proportional to the value of the overload current, t.e. The higher the overload, the faster the differential automaton will be triggered and disconnecting the protected area of ​​the network.

What is differential current, where does it come from? As can be seen from the name, this is the difference of currents flowing along the phase conductor to the consumer and on the zero working conductor back. Differential current transformer integrated into the DEF. Automatic, constantly compares the “outgoing” and “coming” into the device of currents.

In the normal operating mode of the network, these currents are equal to each other. When an accident occurs, a current leak appears, that is, the “coming” current is less than the “leaving” leakage. If the leakage current in the network is equal or higher.

automatic, then the device is triggered and the protected area of ​​the network is turned off.

Where Difs are used. automatic machines

Protective diff. Automobiles along with the RCD are installed in distribution electric shields in apartments, offices, private houses, production facilities, etc.

Most often, difavtomats are installed on group outlet lines, “wet” consumers (washing machine, boiler, dishwasher, etc.), warm floor and a number of other devices.

Thanks to the use of difavtomats, it was possible to significantly reduce the level of electrical injury during the daily operation of various kinds of electrical equipment.

Difavtomats with a leakage current of 100mas and 300mas are used to protect the property of the house from a fire, which can be caused as a result of aging of insulation and heating of the current elements of the network. If you take a difavtomat directly from the warehouse, the price will be less than in construction markets. SHOP220 online store offers the best for DEF. automatic machines, discounts up to 25%.

Difavtomat connection

The electrical diagram of connecting the difavtomat to the network is similar to the RCD connection. the phase and zero conductors of the circuit protected by it are connected to the corresponding clamps of the device. Zero from the release of the difavtomat, as well as zero after the RCD, it is not allowed to combine other lines with the zero conductors, otherwise the scheme will be collected incorrectly and the differential machine will be constantly falsely disconnected.

Connecting the network to the difavtomat to connect from above, to its upper clamps (terminals). The wires going to the power of the load are connected to the lower clamps. This is not a strict norm, but rather a generally accepted practice. In Germany, for example, everything is done exactly the opposite. the supply network is connected to the lower clamps, and the load to the upper clamps of the apparatus.

In order to save money and ensure differential protection, the installation of one differential circuit breaker at entering an apartment/house/office is practiced. The disadvantage of this difavtomat connection scheme is the extinction of all lines in case of malfunctions in only one of them.

Therefore, it is advisable to connect differential machines to the distribution lines of the group network, and not at the input. In this case, only a damaged fishing line for a trimmer will be disconnected, and the rest of the lines will continue to work in the standard mode.

The installation of difavtomats in group lines will provide high reliability and uninterrupted power supply, but from a financial point of view more expensive.

Connection of difavtomats to the network should be carried out by a qualified electrician with a group of tolerance and many years of experience working behind him. Work should be performed in the absence of voltage in the network.

Difavtomata test button

The leakage protection module is the most important component of the difavtomat, because it is responsible for protecting a person from electric shock. To control the operability of the module on the device case there is a “Test” button.

It is easy to find it, for example, in EATON difavtomats, she is yellow. If the device is connected to the network, then when clicking the “Test” button, the device must instantly disconnect. This indicates the serviceability of the device.

If the disconnection does not occur, it is urgent to replace the device.

Difavtomat or RCD

The visual difference between the RCD and the difavtomat are insignificant. Both devices have a network turning on/off lever, “Test” button and status indicator. But the functional differences of the devices are huge. RCD protects only from leakage current. It does not protect against overloads, and especially short.circuit. If you artificially create overload on the network, then the RCD will not work in any way, and over time it will simply fail. Therefore, it should be connected to the network only paired with one or group of circuit breakers.

The differential circuit breaker, unlike the RCD, protects the network not only from the leakage current, but also from overload and short circuit. When choosing a difavtomat, we get a 2 in 1 device, it combines the functions of a protective shutdown device and circuit breaker. Thus, Dif Automat occupies 2 modules in the distribution shield, and the bunch of dessoutomatic device. 3 modules.

How to connect a water heater to electricity. errors, cable choice, outlets, machine guns.

For a comfortable living in the house, when you want to constantly use hot water, and not depend on the repair schedule of monopolists that can turn off this water for an unknown number of days, many are thinking about purchasing a boiler.

Most often, the choice falls towards the accumulative water heater. They come in different companies Ariston, Drazhitsa, Baxi, etc.D., forms and structures. flat, cylindrical or elongated.

The installation of cold and hot water pipes may differ in them, but they are connected to the 220V network, they are all the same.

Many mistakenly believe that in order to connect the boiler, just stick the plug in the outlet and do not worry about more. However, they forget that it is in the boiler, in the event of a violation of isolation, through water, direct contact of electricity with a person can occur through water.

When repairing in new apartments, a separate wiring is usually carried out directly from the shield for the boiler. If you want to connect the boiler to the old common wiring, on which several sockets are already connected, be sure to make sure that it will withstand the boiler power.

In most cases, with a power of up to 3.5 kW, the wiring should be performed by a 3-residential copper cable of VVGGNG-LS, with a cross section of at least 2.5mm2.

The three.wire cable is necessary in order to ensure constant connection with grounding.

Boiler connection machine, choose two.pole. The rated current of the machine 16a (enough at a boiler power up to 3.5 kW).

With a load of up to 2 kW, a circuit breaker with a rated current 10A is suitable.

If the boiler is connected from the outlet, then the outlet should have an IP44 protection degree. These are sockets for rooms with increased humidity level.

Remember that a socket in the bathroom can be placed only in certain places. And there are zones where to do this is strictly prohibited. Read more about this in the article “Rosette in the bathroom. 5 Rules for placement “.

Although many are opponents of connecting electric heaters through the outlet, but only in this way can a visible breakdown of conductors (phases and zero) be ensured when turning off, as required by safety regulations.

And also for those water heaters who initially go with forks in the kit, if they cut them off, sometimes you can lose a guarantee. Therefore, read the instructions.

If it says that this boiler can be connected in two ways

In addition, if you need to dismantle the device from the wall, if you have a fork, you do not need to call an electrician to turn it off from power. I pulled the fork, take off, rearrange, do what you want.

Powerful boilers over 3.5 kW, should only be connected through the circuit breaker, the outlet connection is not permissible here.

The cable must be started so that there are no intersections with water pipes and places of the future fastener of the heater.

In the nourishing line of the boiler, the installation of the RCD is required. Protective shutdown devices. Choose it according to the current one order higher than the current of the machine.

Why is it better than 10mas, and not more, you can understand from this sign of exposure to current on the human body:

A significant minus here, that on 10m protection can be falsely working. Especially if your water heater has been hanging for several years and in places of connection of terminals, such condensate and moisture are often formed.

How to check the false this trigger or is faulty? To do this, use the multimeter.

Turn off the supply machine or pull the fork from the outlet and disconnect the standard ground from the titanium body.

Then remove the terminal clamps from the heater, and with the help of probes, measure the resistance between the boiler housing and the heating element.

If the heating is in good condition, the indications on the multimeter screen should strive for infinity, that is, to be about the following:

With a breakdown and damage to the heater, they will either be zero, but most often they can be several hundred and even a kilo. In the photo below this is the option ~ 500k.

How to choose an RCD: tips for beginners from a professional

RCD (protective shutdown device). a device designed to switch currents in normal operating modes, as well as to open contacts in the case when the differential current exceeds a certain value.

Differential current is understood as the difference in currents in the phase and zero wire, and it occurs in the case of current leakage to the ground. for example, with an electric shock of a person. Also, leakage currents can occur due to aging isolation, which, in turn, can lead to heating the wiring and fire.

Differential automaton also has a disconnection function. Unlike the RCD, Dif. The machine is able to turn off the current current currents and overload currents. That is:

Dif. automatic machine = RCD circuit breaker

On electrical circuits, it is indicated as follows:

Principle of operation

Inside the RCD there is a differential current transformer that reacts to the amount of phase (s) currents and zero conductor. In normal current mode in the phase and zero (3 phases and zero-for the 3-phase RCD), they compensate each other and the operation does not occur. In the case of current leakage to the ground, the currents do not compensate each other, in the secondary winding of the transformer there will be voltage and the RCD will work.

Does the RCD work without grounding?

Quite often they ask the question whether the RCD works without grounding? Answer: Yes, it works. But it is worth noting that in the case of combining the zero working conductor (n) and zero protective (PE), even in normal operating modes, a current leak on the ground is possible, which will cause false operation.

We turn to PUE (7 edition) paragraph 1.74: “In the zone of action of the RCD, a zero working conductor should not have connections with grounded elements and a zero protective conductor”.

In other words: RCD and Dif. The machine operates in the case when the current in the zero conductor is less than in the phase. This happens when the current flows to the ground, for example, with a shock or violation of an electric circuit.

Classification of RCDs

  • RCD without built.in protection against super.flows (VDT). opens contacts with an increase in differential current above a certain value;
  • RCD with built.in protection against super.flows (AVDT). VDT with the function of turning off the currents of the short circuit and overload currents.In turn, the AVDT is divided into groups according to the characterization of instant discharge, t.e.: VDT. RCD, AVDT. Dif. machine.
  • RCD functionally depending on the voltage of the circuit;
  • RCD, functionally independent of the voltage of the circuit (opening and non.stressed when the voltage disappears in the network).

Depending on the number of poles and current tracks:

According to the conditions of functioning in the presence of a constant current component:

  • AS type. RCD of this type reacts to alternating leakage current in the circuit. Usually the cheapest oko. Recommended for use for household purposes. Such an RCD is indicated as follows:
  • Type A. RCD of this type reacts to a constant component of the leakage current that can occur in semiconductor power supply units. Such an RCD is more expensive than an AC of AC. But it is worth noting that some manufacturers of household appliances recommend protecting their devices only ACO Tipa.RCD A-type is indicated as follows:

According to the conditions of resistance to undesirable operation from exposure to voltage pulses:

  • General type. RCD without exposure of time.
  • Type S-ul with exposure of 0.1-0, 5 sec time. Such RCDs are used to ensure selectivity. disconnecting the damaged part of the electrical circuit.

Example: an introductory RCD with a rattle of 0.5 seconds, an RCD on a retreating line with a shutter speed of 0.1 sec. If it is damaged on the line after 0.1 seconds, the RCD will turn off on the outgoing line, and the introductory will not have time to turn off.

Also, the RCDs are classified by the type of installation (stationary and mobile performance), by the method of protection against external factors (protected and unprotected), by the method of installation (superficial, drowned or panel-paneling).

Marking of the RCD

Each VDT (AVDT) must have a persistent marking indicating all or, with small sizes, part of the following data:

  • Name of the manufacturer or trading sign (brand);
  • Designation of type, catalog number or series numbers;
  • Nominal (s) voltage (I);
  • Nominal frequency if the VDT is designed for a frequency different from 50 and/or 60 Hz
  • Rated current;
  • Nominal disconnecting differential current;
  • Settings of a disconnecting differential current for VDT with several values ​​of a disconnecting differential current;
  • The nominal largest including and turn off the switching ability;
  • Degree of protection (only in case of distinction from IP20);
  • Working position, if necessary;
  • The nominal greatest differential and disconnecting ability if it differs from the nominal largest turning on and disconnecting ability;
  • Symbol for devices type S;
  • The indication that VDT functionally depends on the network voltage, if this is happening;
  • Designation of the control body by the control device. letter T;
  • Connection diagram;
  • Working characteristic in the presence of differential currents with constant current components.

The labeling should be applied either directly to the VDT or on the plate (ah) attached (ny) to the DVT, and should be located so as to be visible after installing the VDT.

If the dimensions of the devices do not allow you to apply all the above data, then at least the marking according to paragraphs 5), 6), 14) should be visible after installation. Information on paragraphs 1), 2), 3), 10), 11) and 15) can be applied on the side or rear surfaces of the device and be visible only before installation. Information on paragraph 15) can be applied to the inner surface of any cover that needs to be removed to join the supply wires.

Information on other points should be given in the operational documentation and catalogs of the manufacturer.

Conclusions intended exclusively for connecting the working zero conductor circuit must be indicated by the letter N. Conclusions intended for a zero protective conductor, if any, must be indicated by a symbol (according to GOST 29322).

How to connect a water heater to electricity. errors, cable choice, outlets, machine guns

For a comfortable living in the house, when you want to constantly use hot water, and not depend on the repair schedule of monopolists that can turn off this water for an unknown number of days, many are thinking about purchasing a boiler.

Most often, the choice falls towards the accumulative water heater. They come in different companies Ariston, Drazhitsa, Baxi, etc.D., forms and structures. flat, cylindrical or elongated.

The installation of cold and hot water pipes may differ in them, but they are connected to the 220V network, they are all the same.

Many mistakenly believe that in order to connect the boiler, just stick the plug in the outlet and do not worry about more. However, they forget that it is in the boiler, in the event of a violation of isolation, through water, direct contact of electricity with a person can occur through water. What should be paid to special attention when connecting the boiler:

When repairing in new apartments, a separate wiring is usually carried out directly from the shield for the boiler. If you want to connect the boiler to the old common wiring, on which several sockets are already connected, be sure to make sure that it will withstand the boiler power.

In most cases, with a power of up to 3.5 kW, the wiring should be performed by a 3-residential copper cable of VVGGNG-LS, with a cross section of at least 2.5mm2.

The three.wire cable is necessary in order to ensure constant connection with grounding.

Boiler connection machine, choose two.pole. The rated current of the machine 16a (enough at a boiler power up to 3.5 kW).

With a load of up to 2 kW, a circuit breaker with a rated current 10A is suitable.

If the boiler is connected from the outlet, then the outlet should have an IP44 protection degree. These are sockets for rooms with increased humidity level.

Remember that a socket in the bathroom can be placed only in certain places. And there are zones where to do this is strictly prohibited. Read more about this in the article “The Roset in the Bathroom. 5 Rules for Accommodation”.

And also for those water heaters who initially go with forks in the kit, if they cut them off, sometimes you can lose a guarantee. Therefore, read the instructions.

If it says that this boiler can be connected in two ways

In addition, if you need to dismantle the device from the wall, if you have a fork, you do not need to call an electrician to turn it off from power. I pulled the fork, take off, rearrange, do what you want.

Powerful boilers over 3.5 kW, should only be connected through the circuit breaker, the outlet connection is not permissible here.

The cable must be started so that there are no intersections with water pipes and places of the future fastener of the heater.

In the nourishing line of the boiler, the installation of an RCO. a protective shutdown device is required. Choose it according to the current one order higher than the current of the machine.

Why is it better than 10mas, and not more, you can understand from this sign of exposure to current on the human body:

A significant minus here, that on 10m protection can be falsely working. Especially if your water heater has been hanging for several years and in places of connection of terminals, such condensate and moisture are often formed.

How to check the false this trigger or is faulty? To do this, use the multimeter.

Turn off the supply machine or pull the fork from the outlet and disconnect the standard ground from the titanium body.

Then remove the terminal clamps from the heater, and with the help of probes, measure the resistance between the boiler housing and the heating element.

If the heating is in good condition, the indications on the multimeter screen should strive for infinity, that is, to be about the following:

With a breakdown and damage to the heater, they will either be zero, but most often they can be several hundred and even a kilo. In the photo below this is the option ~ 500k.

Very often, in many recent boiler models, an RCD with a 15ma leak current is already going built into a cable for connecting to a socket. In this case, installing an additional protection apparatus from the leakage current in the shield may not be required.

However, do not forget that such a built.in RCD will protect against leakage only if it is damaged in the heater itself, but will not protect you with a malfunction directly in the outlet or supplying wiring before it.

How to find such and other such malfunctions and what this can lead to, you can familiarize yourself with the article “hits the current in the bathroom. 5 reasons and what to do?”

And what to do if you are not an expert in electricity and you yourself cannot or do not want to climb into the electrical panel, in order to mount all the required protection devices there. But at the same time, you still need to protect yourself.

Turn it into the existing outlet in the bathroom, and already through it stick a fork from the boiler cord.

Will the device of protective shutdown on the boiler work if you do not have grounding? Will be. These two systems are designed to supplement each other when working together.

In the case of current leakage on a boiler without grounding, the protection apparatus will work only when you directly touch the tank or to the water from it (with the heater turned on). And if there is a grounding conductor, then the RCD will work immediately after supplying voltage to the titanium without waiting for your touch. That’s the whole difference.

Boiler connection diagram through the outlet:

Conditional scheme without an outlet directly from the shield:

This is categorically impossible. The outlets should be taken away from the heating device and placed above the mixers. Do not forget about the safety valve and possible leaks.

The valve will work as the last step of protection if the thermostat refused. By the way, the thermostat needs to be checked in the first place, when the bulb on the panel does not glow, and the hets do not warm. See in what position the button is on the element, it can be “knocked out”.

  • A common error when connecting the device directly to the outlet is the desire to turn off the device by pulling the fork at the moment when the water has not yet been heated and the heater is still working

If its power reaches 3.5 kW, then with such a breakdown of contacts, sparking may occur, with the formation of an arc. And since the bathroom is a room with high humidity, the consequences may not be predictable. Therefore, always, before pulling out the plug, turn off the load with standard control devices on the boiler itself.

Whether it is necessary to ground a flowing water heater?

Is it necessary to ground the water heater in the country or in the cottage? Definitely, yes! A boiler in a private house, at the cottage, garden plot should also be brought to the ground. As a rule, in order to ground a water heater in a private house, conductors and contours are provided for by projects, although it happens that they are not.

It must correspond to the power of the water heater. For example, if the boiler consumes up to 2.3 kW, then the protective device should be designed for 10 A. For heaters of 5.5–7 kW, you need a device for 32 A. But for boilers at 7-8 kW, an RCD is required for 40 A.

How to choose a differential machine for an apartment?

For a group fishing line for a trimmer, it is enough to choose a characteristic of 30 mA if you decide to divide the wiring into groups. To enter a private house, to protect against a fire, it is recommended to put a 300 mA dipavtomat, and in the apartments it is enough to use an apparatus designed for 100 mA.

Connecting a difavtomat in a power grid without grounding The ground conductor is absent. If the wiring is not replaced with a three.wire, there is a threat of safety of using various devices and devices requiring power supply from the network of alternating current.

Do I need to put an RCD on a water heater?

In the nourishing line of the boiler, the installation of an RCO. a protective shutdown device is required. Choose it according to the current one order higher than the current of the machine. Leakage current for RCD. 10mas or 30m.

RCD without grounding works only at the time of touching the body of the device under voltage. Therefore, the degree of protection is no longer as reliable as in the first version, but nevertheless, even in this case, the RCD protects against unpleasant consequences of the electricity lesion.

Which machine is better to put at the entrance to the apartment?

For a single.phase network of 220 W, it is necessary to install a two.pole single.phase automatic. If the wiring in the apartment is three.phase, the input is required to mount a four.pole switching device.

Boiler connection machine, choose two.pole. The rated current of the machine 16a (enough at a boiler power up to 3.5 kW). With a load of up to 2 kW, a circuit breaker with a rated current 10A is suitable.

Is it possible to use a dipht machine without earth?

Connecting a difavtomat in a power grid without grounding The ground conductor is absent. If the wiring is not replaced with a three.wire, there is a threat of safety of using various devices and devices requiring power supply from the network of alternating current.

It must correspond to the power of the water heater. For example, if the boiler consumes up to 2.3 kW, then the protective device should be designed for 10 A. For heaters of 5.5–7 kW, you need a device for 32 A. But for boilers at 7-8 kW, an RCD is required for 40 A.

How to choose the right difavtomat

Protection against short circuit and current overload in the electrical wiring is carried out by automatic circuit breakers (AB), and protection against electric shock and current leakage in the electrical wiring performs a protective shutdown (RCD).

Differential machine carries two AB and RCD protection functions in one device. Separate devices for the protection of AB and RCD, and differential automata have their advantages and disadvantages for different use.

In what cases do differential automata choose

Each apartment has a sufficient number of electrical appliances. And they all must have their own individual protection. If an electric bundle, oven, washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, boiler, hall, bedrooms, children’s, etc. D. put separate automatic machine AB and RCD, then what size an electric shield will be. This is the main advantage of the differential machine.

Also, if the RCD is required to choose a current 1-2 orders higher than the rated current of the AB machine, then the differential machine is selected only for the optimal current protection current and overload. And so we stopped choosing a differential machine for an apartment or house. Now it is necessary to decide on the characteristics of the device in each specific case.

The choice of optimal current. The value of the differential machine gun is selected depending on the load of the electrical appliance, lighting power or cross.sectional power of the electrical wiring. There are differential machines with current parameters C6, C10 (for lighting), C16, C25, C40, C50, C63, C80, C100.

The leakage current is this main parameter of protection that is expressed in milliamps (ma) and is indicated by a symbol. If Dif. The machine is placed immediately due to the counter, then the leakage current is selected 300 mA for the house, or 100ma for the apartment. For individual groups, the leakage current select 30 mA, and separate networks 10 mA.

By voltage. There are differential devices at 380 V and 220 V. For a three.phase network, 380 in the device has four contacts at the top and bottom, one of which is a working zero.

Тестирую дифференциальный автомат на утечку

The choice of a differential leakage current machine

Type. Devices are divided by type of leakage current of AS and A. AC automatic machines are used for alternating leakage current, and type A devices are triggered from a direct leakage current. Thus, Dif. Type A machine guns are used to protect electronic devices, such as televisions, computers and even dishwasher or washing machines, where the AC AC ACAs ineffectively reacts to a constant leakage current.

Zero cliff protection. For the proper operation of the difavtomat, a 220 V network is required (phase and zero). If for some reason the phase disappears, then the device will not work, since there is no leakage current. And if zero breaks off and a leakage current appears (raw walls with old electrical wiring, a breakdown of the insulation of wires in an electrical appliance, etc. D.), then the protection of the RCD will also not work t. to. There is no full power supply circuit for protection.

Difavtomat installation diagram with protective ground PE

There is a danger of an electric shock of a person. To exclude such a situation, the difavtomat must have protection against a zero cliff. If there is no such function in protecting the RCD, then you need to separately purchase and set the voltage relay with protection against a cliff of zero.

Which manufacturer of difavtomatov to choose

Saving on the protection of electric networks and protection against human current damage is not worth it. A high.quality protection device will last many years. This is much more profitable than installing cheap, not reliable protection options and change them every year. Popular brands are ABB (Swedes with Switzerland), Legrand (France), Schneider Electric (France), Siemens (Germany). These manufacturers have proven the reliability and quality of their products for many years.

It is important to install a protective device in electric networks with a protective conductor PE. When the leakage current appears through the conductor PE, the protection will immediately work. And if you use a working zero n instead of PE, then the leakage current will pass through a person to the ground, which is not very pleasant. The effectiveness of protection in this case will be much lower than in the first version.

It is possible to solve the problem of protecting the wiring from overload and leakage currents with the help of a pair of devices. a protective machine and RCD. But the same problem is solved by a differential protective machine, which combines both of these devices in one case. About the correct connection of the difavtomat and its choice and the speech will go further.

Purpose, technical characteristics and choice

Difavtomat or differential protection machine combines the functions of the protection machine and RCD. That is, this device alone protects the wiring from overload, short circuit and leakage current. The leakage current is formed with a malfunction of the insulation or when touching the livestock elements, that is, it still protects a person from electricity defeat.

Difavtomats are installed in electrical distribution shields, most often on din races. They are placed instead of a bundle of automaticuso, physically occupy a little less space. How specifically it depends on the manufacturer and the type of execution. And this is their main plus, which can be in demand when modernizing the network, when the place in the shield is limited, and it is necessary to connect a certain number of new lines.

Difavtomats are used to protect wiring from increased loads and a person from electricity damage

The second positive moment is the savings of funds. As a rule, a difavtomat costs less than a pair of automaticum with similar characteristics. Another positive point. it is necessary to decide only on the face value of the protection machine, and the RCD is built by default with the required characteristics.

There are also disadvantages: when you exit and build one of the parts of the difavtomat, you will have to change the whole device, and this is more expensive. Also, not all models are equipped with flags by which it is possible to determine why the device worked-due to overload or leakage current-which is fundamentally important when clarifying the reasons.

Leonid

Everything would be fine. But there is an pitfall.How much measured wire diameter by 2.5 squares does not comply with the norms. It must be 1.8 mm and in real life 1.four-.one.5 also 1.5 squares And additives in the form of other cheap metalsYou take one wire, then a little harsh and the other (analogue for 2.5 squares) it is soft what manufacturer. So 1.5 squares may not withstand 4.1 kW, as the last author writes but 2 kW t.E 9 will withstand the amperes but better and according to the standards all the same 2.5 squares And then decide which wire to take.

Leonid, before the wires were produced according to GOST, and now according to TU, so the manufacturers are chemical in the smaller direction, which is beneficial for them. By the way, the wires are now made not from copper, but from some kind of alloy. So when purchasing wires, you must be careful and measure the diometer of the wire or cable and make a recalculation by the cross section.

Victor

Copper one.core wire 1.5 mm withstands 15 amperes and 2 kilowatts consumes current 8 amperes of at least 10 amperes by 16

If we talk about the cross.section of the conductor, then here you are free to use almost any reasonable solution for wiring. The thing is that the wire with copper veins with a section of 1.5 mm2 can normally withstand the load of 4.1 kW. You want to connect only 2 kW to this line, which is half the permissible power rating. Therefore, if you are not going to connect any more load to this line, then even 1.5 mm2 will be more than enough, 2.5mm2 can withstand 4.4 kW of loads for aluminum wires, but you cannot use them for the home circuit.

Regarding the value of the machine, your water heater, depending on the supply voltage will spend about 10A. Therefore, to protect against a short circuit, you will have enough an automatic machine for 16A. If the water heater is not the only load connected to this machine, then you will need to smoke their current and select an automatic machine with the nearest big value.

Milliamps for a conventional circuit breaker are not regulated, but for the water heater this parameter is relevant in terms of preventing electric shock in case of breakdown on the case. To ensure such protection, a protective shutdown device (RCD) is installed, for household needs there will be enough 30mas or 10m. In addition to the RCD, you can use a difavtomat, which combines the properties of a conventional machine and RCD, the characteristics of the difavtomat are selected immediately according to two parameters. the shutdown current and the leakage current, for example, 16A and 30ma.

Author

Kerariel

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