Types of homemade exhaust stoves
Engine oil contaminated with impurities doesn’t ignite itself. Therefore, the principle of operation of any oil-burning stove is based on the thermal decomposition of fuel. pyrolysis. Simply put, to produce heat, the waste must be heated, evaporated, and burned in the furnace furnace with excess air. There are 3 types of devices, where this principle is implemented in different ways:
- The simple and most popular design of direct combustion with afterburning of oil vapor in an open-type peorized tube (the so-called miracle stove).
- A waste oil furnace with a closed afterburner;
- The Babington Burner. How it works and how to make it yourself is described in detail in our other publication.
Note. Serious masters, who know everything about using liquid fuel, made some flare burners according to the factory samples. But due to the complexity of such designs are not available to a wide range of home and garage craftsmen, so will not be considered here.
The efficiency of the heating boilers is low and amounts to a maximum of 70%. Note that the heating costs listed at the beginning of the article are calculated according to the factory heat generators with an efficiency of 85% (for a full picture and a comparison of oil and wood you can go here). Accordingly, the fuel consumption in self-made heaters is much higher. from 0.8 to 1.5 liters of fuel per hour against 0.7 liters in diesel boilers per 100 sq.m. area. Take this fact into account when making a waste oil furnace.
Design and disadvantages of an open fireplace
The pictured pyrolysis furnace is a cylindrical or square container, a quarter filled with used oil or diesel fuel and equipped with an air damper. A chimney with holes is welded at the top, through which the secondary air is sucked by the chimney draft. Even higher is the afterburning chamber with a partition for heat extraction from the combustion products.
Help. The upper chamber of the burzhuyka is not necessary to do. There is a more effective solution for heat extraction. to make an afterburner with a turn of 90° and direct it into an inclined chimney, heat exchanger-economizer or inside an ordinary wood-burning stove.
The principle of operation is as follows: the fuel must be ignited using a flammable liquid, after which the waste will evaporate and its primary combustion will begin, causing pyrolysis. Combustible gases, falling into the peorized tube, burst from contact with the oxygen stream and burn completely. The intensity of the flame in the combustion chamber is regulated by an air damper.
This stove on the exhaust has only two advantages: the simplicity of cheapness and independence from electricity. Otherwise. solid minuses:
- for operation requires a stable natural draught, without it the unit begins to smoke into the room and fade;
- Water or antifreeze, getting into the oil, cause mini-explosions in the combustion chamber, that is why fire drops splash in all directions from the afterburner and the owner has to extinguish the fire;
- high consumption of fuel. up to 2 liters/hour with weak heat dissipation (the lion’s share of energy flies into the pipe);
- inseparable casing is difficult to clean from soot.
Some of these disadvantages can be leveled with the help of successful technical solutions, as will be discussed below. Fire safety rules must be followed and used oil must be prepared during operation. filtered and settled.
Pros and cons of the drip oven
The cardinal difference of this furnace is as follows:
Waste Heat Recovery Explained final
- The soot tube is placed inside the steel casing from a gas cylinder or pipe;
- Fuel reaches the combustion zone in the form of droplets falling to the bottom of the bowl placed under the afterburner;
- to increase the efficiency, the unit is equipped with an air supercharger with a fan, as shown in the diagram.
Note. Burzhuyka is able to work from the natural chimney draft, but then the diameter and the number of holes in the afterburner must be increased.
The real disadvantage of the drip stove. the complexity of execution for the beginner. The fact that you can not rely entirely on someone else’s drawings and calculations, the heater should produce and configure for their operating conditions and properly organize the fuel supply. That is, it will require repeated refinements.
Flame heats the heater body in one zone around the burner
The second negative moment is characteristic for heaters with a supercharger. In them a stream of flame constantly hits one place of the case that last will go quickly enough if not to make it from a thick metal or stainless steel. But the listed disadvantages are more than offset by the advantages:
Waste heat recovery system for electric arc furnaces
- The unit is safe in operation, because the burning zone is completely covered by the iron case.
- Acceptable consumption of used oil. In practice, a well-adjusted water-circulated burner burns up to 1.5 times more than a normal burner.5 liters per hour to heat 100 m² of space.
- It is possible to wrap the body with a water jacket and convert the waste oil furnace into a boiler.
- Adjustable fuel and power output.
- Low chimney height and easy cleaning.
A lyrical digression. Since turbo oil heaters operate virtually smokeless, soot accumulates in small amounts only in the bowl. A savvy craftsman will make it easy to remove.
How to make a waste oil stove with your own hands
Perhaps there is not a person who would not try to save money on heating fuel. This is possible if you use waste oil heating furnaces. Any oil that can burn can be fed into them: transmission oil, diesel oil, machine oil, confectionary oil, and vegetable oil. And as a result, there are no problems with the furnace. Below we will tell you how to build a homemade stove for used oil, using the cheapest materials at hand.
How to make a waste oil stove with a supercharger from the drawings
For heating technical rooms, including a garage or utility room, a supercharged or non-supercharged waste oil furnace is often used. If you take the right approach to self-made construction, you can get an economical heating system for both space heating and getting warm water. Used oil, as a rule, is discarded, and such a stove works on it.
Types of furnaces
Depending on the method of blowing, there are several types of heating devices. The injection method is considered the safest, with the stove continuing to retain heat even if the supercharger functions are reduced.
The ejector method requires installation of a fan of 1500 m3/h. In order to prevent the filling of the house with harmful substances during the termination of the forced air supply, it is necessary to take care of installation between the fan and the ejector of a special poppet valve with a blocking spring.
Kinds of self-made structures
According to the type of design, the waste heat stoves can be divided into three types:
The first option is a very simple device, which folk craftsmen who know how to work with a welding machine, make on their own. For this use a fairly thick sheet metal, metal pipes, etc. п. Significantly reduce the operating time by using a gas cylinder. There may well be residual gas in a cylinder that has already been used. If the upper part is cut off, there is a danger of a small explosion. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to pump water into the cylinder and only then begin dismantling.
Tutorial on Waste Heat Recovery through Energy Efficient Coolers and Preheater Tower
For a blower heater, an additional blower is needed. This should be done so that the main air flow goes to the second chamber. It provides high-quality combustion of fuel and contributes to an even and rapid distribution of the heat received in the room.
Depending on the design, the waste oil furnace can use conventional convection, an air heat exchanger or water heating in a boiler
It is quite difficult to construct a drip fuel supply by yourself. Usually such an element is equipped with industrial models. This saves significantly on waste oil consumption. Industrial units are efficient, compact, safe and relatively inexpensive. However, there are also homemade models that combine both a drip oil system and supercharging.
Types of Waste Oil Furnaces
There are a lot of drawings of furnaces on the waste oil. Let’s talk about the most popular ones:
- the simplest design consists of two chambers of equal size, connected to each other by a pipe with peoration; for heating small rooms, a 70x40x30 cm stove is enough; at the same time, the size of the tanks should be 30×10 cm
- With a supercharger: a small fan that is installed separately and connected to the stove by a duct, often installed in place of the ash-pit in the area of the lower tank; such a device allows you to increase the temperature of combustion and lack of smoke
- drop type: in such furnaces, the bottom fuel filling tank is transferred to a separate chamber installed above the afterburning chamber; such furnaces are considered to be more stable and safe
- with an additional after-burner of flue gases: to increase the efficiency the second chamber is made with a turn
- with an expansion tank for loading fuel and a valve to regulate its flow
The disadvantage of such designs is uneven heating of the room. A more advanced variant of modern furnaces is the waste-heat furnace with a water circuit. systems in which the heated water travels through pipes to the radiator. After releasing heat, it returns to the boiler via a return water pipe.
A variant of such furnaces is a device with a water jacket, a pipe that encircles the furnace, or a water tank that surrounds the device on all sides. The liquid in this case will be heated much faster.
If you know the technique of electric welding, the oil furnace can be made by yourself. Materials are prepared according to the furnace drawings.
To assemble the device, you will need some tools. It is:
After assembly, connections are checked for leaks so that oil cannot leak through welds and seals.
A waste oil furnace includes two cylindrical vessels connected by a peorized tube. The upper tank contains a baffle inside and is axially offset from the lower tank. Round containers can be replaced by square or rectangular ones. The work of the heater will not be impaired. On the floor, the structure is installed with welded legs.
A conventional oil furnace has a capacity of no more than 3-4 kW. It can be made larger by proportionally increasing the size. The next step is to install two afterburning chambers, a waste-oil tank into the first combustion chamber and a drawer furnace. The most efficient is the supercharged oil furnace. Getting more than 15 kW of power by increasing the size is not advisable. The intensity of oil evaporation has a limit, above which there is soot and smoke.
Supercharged exhaust stove.
Good day to you all!I see stoves flickering.).I also decided to tell you about mine.I will say at once the furnace is not invented by me.At the moment the furnace is working steadily at a flow rate of 1.2 liters per hour.Outdoors.15, in the garage 15 for an hour and a half.Garage 3.5х6.The furnace is not fully worked out.And it will be perfected probably infinitely))).As the saying goes, there is no limit to perfection.Anyway, about the furnace itself.As the basis was taken this draft.
The main pipe diameter is 219mm, length about 790mm.The chimney diameter is 110, there is no smoke at all.afterburner inlet 89 pipe, further narrowed to 57.57 pipe showed better performance.Snail from a clunker I do not know)
The door is made so.Very easy to get the bowl out for cleaning.
This same door is tightly clamped by two stainless steel bolts.In the center there is a socket with a plug for ignition.
For rapid heating of the bowl and the furnace going into operating mode (which is about 5 minutes, no more), this same bowl was put on a profile pipe (pipe wall thickness of about 4 mm)
What would not wiggle bowl, and stood exactly in the center of the platform of pipes (which is located on the bowl) were welded corners.From the photo it’s clear
On the afterburner, the air supply is at the top with the outlet.Red cock to shut off the primary air.On the combustor itself drilled holes 5 rows of diameter 3.2 mm at a 45 degree angle.I have been playing with this stove a month, and already close to the truth.I used to have a wood burning stove like this.d-cd.net/2ab176cs-960.jpg.Wood stove is not even close to an oil stove.Tested personally.To all those who say you will burn with this stove I say one thing-you are sorely mistaken.Furnace is 100% safe.I even added water for the sake of interest.The stove is starting to go out.I almost forgot.Made a container for it out of a barrel.Barrel on legs with two taps, one above the other (I think it is clear why it is done so)
As always in a hurry, because there is so much to do.Good evening to you all!If interested, I will add a video of the oven!
Practically the final look of the stove.No fresh air intake from the street heated through the chimney.
The main part of the heater consists of two tubes, one outer and one inner. I made the outer tube, where oil burns inside, from a pipe 160 mm in diameter.
Welded on the side is a 100 mm diameter pipe for connection to the chimney. I made the bottom out of 2 mm sheet.
Internal pipe, through which air comes in, 60 mm in diameter, bottom made of 4 mm sheet, lid of 2 mm sheet.
In the large tube is placed a cup, which receives the oil. Made of 4 mm sheet.
To get the cup from the pipe, made a special poker.
The oil in the cup is fed through a tube, for this purpose a piece of threaded water pipe was welded in from the side, into which a thermal guide for the pipe is screwed:
For all this from a square tube welded frame:
I clad it with galvanized paper and fastened a snail for blowing stove and a power unit for it.
I assembled the power supply in the case of a burnt-out computer power supply. Took all the guts out of it and plugged in a transformer from a dead uninterruptible power supply and a rectifier.
The transformer has 2 secondary windings of 7 volts each. Inserted the switch, I can supply the fan 7 or 14 volts to adjust the blowing.
Oil flows by gravity from a tank made of CFC bottle. Hose drips into the funnel, where it goes into the furnace through a thin steel tube (8 mm fuel tube).
The fan speed is controlled by the faucet on the bottle.
The chimney is made of the same pipe 100 mm, extended it from the drain of galvanized steel, and on. asbestos-cement. The total height of the chimney is about 4 meters.
After a few hours of use, there is a small layer of soot on the walls and ash in the cup. Everything is very quick and easy to clean.
From the first start of the heater, it seemed to me that it should heat much better. I gave it more oil, it started chugging, and it was unstable. Tried to put a supercharger in the combustion chamber. doesn’t help.
It turned out that for efficient operation, the heater needs air flow from the bottom of the chimney as well!
As soon as I opened the bottom cover (it’s removable for easy cleaning of the chimney), immediately the stove stopped puffing and worked steadily with the characteristic hum. And the temperature in the garage right in front of my eyes went up.
So I finished the lid. sawed a hole and made an adjustable damper:
Screwed the damper with a bolt, and in order to fit tightly, sprung a spring and a washer from the soldiers from the Volga brakes))
Now the heater scorches so that it gets hot. Heats the garage up to 20 degrees without a problem. The door can be left open!
But I don’t need that temperature, I heat up to 15 and then put the stove in economy mode to keep warm. In the intensive heating mode, it takes about a liter of oil per hour, in the weak mode. about 0.5 liters.
In general, the result of their labors, I am completely satisfied. The power of the heater is enough for my garage, it is compact, does not require constant attention, quickly heats the garage and quickly extinguishes.
Instead of a snail, I put a fan from a Zhigulyov stove. From it to the furnace I rolled up a tube of aluminum sheet. This system runs quieter and blows the heater more efficiently. I have welded a pipe with a valve into the tank to adjust the oil flow better. I use the old faucet to drain the sludge from the tank. And also welded a funnel instead of a plastic one.