Home Article SPEL installation procedure systems in the apartment

SPEL installation procedure systems in the apartment

Installation of split systems with your own hands

The rates for the services of a master of installation of the air conditioner are approaching the cost of equipment, so many prefer to do their own. To carry out technical work, you need to know how to install the air conditioner yourself in an apartment or office. The procedure is not complicated, but requires thoroughness and attention.

  • Electric wiring. If the house has old cables, aluminum wires, there are no grounding. it is impossible to install air conditioning. The power of electrical plugs is also important. They must withstand the current strength indicated in the equipment passport is a small stock.
  • The outer part of the walls. The method of fastening and the depth on which the brackets can be installed depends on the building material.
  • The accessibility of the outlet. It should be no higher than 50 cm from the floor level, batteries, various pipes.

If discrepancy is revealed to the norms, they must be eliminated before installing and connecting the equipment. Otherwise, the wiring or equipment will not last long.

What is required to install

A consistent installation of a good split system when performing with your own hands should be carried out taking into account the convenience of access during maintenance and ergonomic criteria-cold air should not have direct access to recreation areas and work.

Approximate location schemes of split systems

A suitable scheme for the installation of a new air conditioner depends on the type of block. The internal module is allowed to hang:

  • to the left of the outside. The track is flat, the block is 0.5 m from the wall. When fascinated by the line on the adjacent wall, the distance can be reduced to 0.1 m. The output and the track are disguised under the cover of technology;
  • to the left of the outer wall without laying the cable on the facade. Communications are laid in the corner part of the room and hidden in the box. He is hidden under the curtain;
  • to the right of the outer wall. A typical solution with laying the track in a box with a wall or with a stack laying.
  • on loggias or balcony. The module is fixed with the front or lateral method for the convenience of maintenance;
  • On a glazed balcony. The sash of the window should be over the air conditioner. So that snow does not get on the block, moisture or garbage set the visor and plastic;
  • under the window. The option is suitable for rooms without a balcony;
  • next to the window. The block is placed at the level of the lower part of the window.

Advice! Do not use hollow or metal materials for the visor. they have low sound insulation.


With independent installation of climate technology, it will be necessary:

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  • a pedulator for making through holes to withdraw pipes, cables, drainage pipes;
  • a pipeline with a sharp blade or a hacksaw for metal;
  • file and a rimmer to trim the zabrin;
  • pipeline or special spring for the formation of copper pipes;
  • Drill with different diameter drills to make holes for mounting plates;
  • Pipe calibrator and collapse;
  • Strobores, which can be replaced with a bite, sledgehammer and hammer;
  • vacuum pump for launching the air conditioning system;
  • screwdrivers, keys-players, level.

Materials and consumables

Use only high.quality materials, selecting them in accordance with the type of equipment:

  • supplying wire for power and connecting modules. power cable for 4 veins with a cross section of 2 mm2 × 2.5 mm2;
  • Seamless copper pipes with the diameter specified in the instructions. The length of the products is equal to the length of the highway, and the supply is about 30 cm;
  • insulating insulation (foamed rubber). segments along the length of the track;
  • synthetic insulation;
  • hose-hose with an inner plastic spiral for drainage or propylene pipe along the length of the track plus 80 cm;
  • L-shaped brackets (2 pcs.) for fixing the outer block with the permissible load limit, 5 times more than the mass of the device;
  • Fastening elements. bolts, dowels and anchors selected by the type of bracket for the internal module.

Air conditioner installation

  • The first stage is the most difficult. It is necessary to imagine where the air conditioner blocks will be located, and how the “track” will be laid between them. Each factor should be taken into account here:
    The dimensions of the blocks. You need to make sure that both devices are placed in the planned place. permissible distances to the ceiling and walls are observed. I wrote several articles about this (read the location of the external unit);

  • You must make sure that there are no wires and pipes in places of wall drilling (especially under the internal block);
  • The drainage tube from the inner unit should provide the drain of the condensate “Samoy”. At least the minimum slope should be (5 mm. 1 meter of length). T.e. you can not drill a hole above the level of the inner block. Make sure that water will merge into the street (and not on a neighbor’s balcony, for example);
  • Now you can start installing an internal block. If the “track” will come out of it to the right, then you need to gently turn the copper tubes in the other direction (t.to. From the factory they are directed to the left). You need to do this very carefully without a flex. do not break the tubes (as indicated in the instructions for “Split”). If you look at the photo, the pipes are bent parallel to the floor, and not perpendicular! The connection of the nuts can only be under the internal unit or in the cable channel. In no case should the nuts of copper tubes be inside the wall.

On the mounting plate, mark the center of the block. Then the center is marked on the wall. Do not forget about the distance to the ceiling. Using the level, align the plate and fasten it.

After that, you can estimate the inner block to the fixed plate (but do not snap the lower clips to the plate!). With a pencil, mark the lower corner corners. Then remove the block from the plate.

  • We note where there will be a hole in the outer wall.
  • If the track goes directly (through the wall under the inner block. “direct installation”), then we make the hole in the lower left corner of the block. We mark the hole with a diameter of 45 mm, so that it is closed after the block.
  • If the “track” goes left or right from the block (“lateral installation”), then mark the “track” to the outer wall (with a small tilt). The photo shows the side installation, where the highway has an additional turn inside the room (t.to. The outer wall is shifted). In your case, there may not be a turn.

Gently cut through the wallpaper and beat off the plaster at the drilling point. If the installation is straight or as in the photo above, then you need to make the so.called “entry” to the hole (where the tubes will go into the wall). So that in this place the bend of the “track” is smooth.

  • We proceed to the drilling of the hole. The diameter of the hole for small air conditioners should be 45-50 mm. During the drilling, control that there are no people, cars and other things on the street.
  • For brick or concrete walls, a large peorator and a drill with a winning tip will be required. The first 2-3 cm walls brown without tilt (in a straight line) so that the drill enters a little into the wall. Then be sure to tilt down. During this operation, it is better to use an industrial vacuum cleaner.
  • It is better to drill a wooden wall with a drill with a fever with a diameter of 45 mm. The process will go slowly, but right. Do not forget about tilt the holes down.
  • Metal profile or Sentwitch is better to drill 45mm bimetallic crown. Do not forget about the slope of the holes down.
  • We proceed to fastening the brackets of the external unit. It is necessary to secure them reliably and in terms of level. If the air conditioner is mounted “under the window”, then it is better to immediately fix the bolts on the brackets (for mounting the block). Bolts should look up and should be tightened with nuts. We fix the bolts so that the legs of the block exactly fall on them.
  • After you have done all the “dirty” work, we take a roulette, a leaf and a pencil in your hands. We count with the margin the length of the inter.block communications (this will help the article about the laying of the “track”):
  • 2 copper tubes. For small air conditioners, tubes with a diameter of 1/4 and 3/8 inch are often used. It is important that the ends of the tubes are sealed from the slightest dust;
  • Interlock cable (connecting two blocks). For small air conditioners, 5 × 1.5 VVG is suitable;
  • Drainage hose. It is better to use a specialized corrugated hose with a diameter of 16mm;
  • thermoflex on both tubes;
  • If the air conditioner “eats” to the external unit, then together with the “track” we launch the power cable. For small air conditioners, PVS 3 × 1.5 is suitable;
  • Additional inter.block wire. Some air conditioners have an additional two.core wire. And if there is one, then do not forget about him.
  • If the “track” of the air conditioner will need to be pulled through one hole in the wall, then you can act as follows:

The internal block is conveniently disposed and connect the materials to it:

    . Open the front cover of the case and find the pads. We pull the cable through the back of the case. Record the numbers of the terminals and the colors of the veins, which were connected to them;

  • unscrew the nuts (or plugs) of the tubes with two keys. Usually the air descends. do not scare and make sure that the plug does not fly away anywhere! The following will require such a device as a roller. We pile and connect the tubes, having previously studied how this is done. We need experience to tighten the nuts with a qualitatively (if you do not reach them, then the freon will “leave”, if you pull it, you can tear the thread). For this, someone uses a special dynamometric key;
  • tightly connect the drainage hose to the inner block;
  • If the air conditioner has an additional wire, then connect it to the designed terminal (you will see it).
  • When the tubes are still without a thermal fuel, we can gently bend them under the hole (if the “installation of direct”). For the “side installation” we cut out the plug of the case.
  • We dress thermoflex on both tubes. All tubes (including their wower compound) should be tightly wrapped in the thermoflex so that condensation does not form on the tubes. It is better to use a special tape for fixing.
  • Compactly lay the “track” inside the block and fix it with a tape. Do not forget about the power cable (we bring it out where you need). And also make sure that the drainage hose is below.

Connection of the blocks

To connect the blocks, it is necessary to observe the correct connection of cable colors. There should not arise with this big problems.


Drainage is removed to the street or to the sewer. On the inner block of the split system there is a tube with a plastic tip, where a corrugated pipe is put on and is squeezed out with a clamp. It is advisable to bring it to a distance of 1 meter from the wall

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In the lower part of the outer block, a corrugated pipe is rarely used and everything is left as it is. Water just drips to the ground.

Freon circulation system

Connecting copper pipes requires responsibility and good preparation. Before this, it is better to carefully read the instructions and study the places for connection. Copper tubes should not bend much and pass evenly with the rest of the communication.

There are two ports for connecting two tubes on the inner block. First you need to twist the nuts. If something hisses during this, it is not scary, it comes out the nitrogen that was pre-uploaded to the block.

After cutting, the pipes carefully checked the ends for the presence of a burr and other rudeness. For 5.7 cm pipe should be perfectly flat. Waltzing is carried out for the size of the port’s fitting. It is very important that the tube is tightly put on the fitting. this will eliminate the excessive loss of freon and ensure normal sealing.

If everything is dressed well, the pipe with the port is connected by winding the nut. There is no need to use gaskets or other devices. Such operations are performed with all the ends of two copper tubes.

Where to install air conditioning in the bedroom

In many apartments, the area of ​​the bedroom is 10-14 m. sq. The opposite of the front door is usually the window. “Traditionally” in such a room is a bed, opposite which a TV is installed.

In this case, there are the following options for installing the air conditioner (sometimes called “lateral installation”, since the hole in the wall is drilled from the side of the block, not under it):

  • on the wall with the TV (closer to the wall with the window);
  • On the wall where the head of the bed is located (closer to the wall with the window). If you are interested in a specific distance from the curtains, then read the article where I indicated the distance from the walls and the ceiling to the air conditioner.

If you choose from these two ways, it is more safe to put an internal block over the head of the bed (ceteris paribus). This is due to the fact that the cold stream from the block is less directed down than in a straight line (if the block is put opposite the bed, there will be more likely to get cold air to the berth). But if a computer table is located opposite the block, then you will have to choose the “smallest of evils”.

An equally effective option is also possible. the location of the block “in the aisle” (between the foot of the bed and the TV). This and other cases of placing an internal block are best discussed already on the spot with specialists. Since most of these options require the coordination of specific technical and financial issues.

In order for you to imagine what other options for the location of the Split blocks, I give a link to the article “Scheme of the air conditioner installation in the apartment“.

In what sequence is the preparation for the installation of the “track” of the air conditioner

This sequence will be relevant for both apartment owners and installers:

    First, the installation site of the air conditioner is determined (the location of the internal block in the room).

  • Next, select the power of cooling the device.
  • Then it is desirable to determine the type of “conder” (inverter or on/off) and choose the future model. Now, when laying the “track”, the size and tube of this model will be taken into account. When the time comes to purchase air conditioning, you can choose either the model considered or any other (but it will be necessary to take into account the dimensions and diameter of the tubes for the new device).
  • We coordinate the exact indentation to the internal block:

The “track” is laid with the desired tube diameter. I will write more about this process below.

  • The customer brings the power cable to the air conditioner and continues finishing work (the “track” is plastered).
  • After finishing, the blocks are hung on the walls and connected to the displayed communications. A vacuum of the system and its launch are carried out.

Determining the installation of the external unit

The external compressor unit should be installed on strong, reliable brackets that will withstand its weight. Do not take too thin metal. External blocks often mount between window openings or under the outer windowsill.

When choosing a place for the block, make sure that in case of repair to it, specialists will be available. The installation site should not be selected next to the gas pipe where leakage is possible. The block should be protected from the rain and the midday sun with a visor and ventilate well. Therefore, you need to withstand the distance recommended by the manufacturer from the block to other surfaces.

If the air conditioner is installed on the ground floor, it makes sense to think over the anti.vandal box to accommodate the outer block.

The principle of operation of the air conditioner

To establish everything correctly, you should have an idea of ​​the device and principle of operation of the air conditioner. It consists of a compressor and evaporative block interconnected by tubes. The compressor is mounted on the outer side of the wall, and the evaporator is installed in the room. Dear models have not one internal block, but several, which are connected to one compressor.

In the evaporative block, a refrigerant is supplied under high pressure. He enters the evaporator’s camera, expands there, boils, and its pairs begin to intensively absorb heat. During this process, water condensate is released and settles on the radiator of the evaporative block. From there, the moisture is sent to the tank and is displayed by the tube outside the building.

All this time, the compressor pumps out the evaporation of the refrigerant from the chamber, increasing the pressure behind the pump. As a result, the refrigerant heats up and turns from a liquid into a fog of a large density. In this state, the refrigerant enters the condensate chamber equipped with a radiator, cools with a fan and again turns into a liquid. In this form, it is again supplied under pressure in the nozzle of the evaporator and the workflow is repeated.

The efficiency of equipment and electricity consumption directly depend on operating conditions. If any heating device is located near the air conditioning, the compressor consumes more energy and more often fails. Classes can also cause a breakdown that got inside the system, and therefore carry out wet cleaning regularly and very carefully. You can not put the surface of the block various objects, as well as cover with something.

To exclude the evaporation of the refrigerant, during installation, all joints and joints should be carefully sealing. The outer unit must be placed lower than the internal, and if possible in the cool place. It’s good if the block is constantly in the shade from the overhang of the roof or walls. Compliance with these conditions will ensure uninterrupted operation of the air conditioner and a comfortable climate in the premises.

Part of the airography
one. Fan creates a stream of air blowing a capacitor
2. Capacitor the radiator in which the cooling and condensation of the freon occurs. Air blown through the capacitor, respectively, heats up
3. Compressor squeezes Freon and supports its movement along the refrigeration contour. The compressor is piston or spiral (scroll) type. Piston compressors are cheaper, but less reliable than spiral, especially at low outdoor temperatures
4. Management payment installed only on inverter air conditioners. In non.inverter models, they try to place all the electronics in the internal block, since large changes in temperature and humidity reduce the reliability of electronic components
5. Four.way valve installed in reverse (heat. cold) air conditioners. In heating mode, this valve changes the direction of the freon movement. At the same time, the internal and outer block, as it were, change places: the internal unit works for heating, and the outer unit for cooling
6. Steper compounds Copper pipes connecting the outer and internal blocks are connected to them
7. The filter of the freon system It is installed in front of the compressor entrance and protects it from copper crumbs and other small particles that can get into the system when installing the air conditioner. Of course, if the installation is made in violation of the technology and a large amount of garbage got into the system, then the filter will not help
eight. Protective fast.removable cover Closes the studio compounds and the terminal used to connect electric cables. In some models, the protective cover covers only the terminal, and the fitting compounds remain outside

The internal block of the air conditioner

Internal air circuit
one. Front Panel is a plastic grill through which air enters the block. The panel is easily removed to serve the air conditioner (cleaning filters and t. P.)
2. Carriage filter It is a plastic grid and is designed to delay large dust, animal hair, etc. P. For the normal operation of the air conditioning, the filter must be cleaned at least twice a month
3. Filter filter There are various types: coal (removes unpleasant odors), electrostatic (delayed fine dust), etc. P. The presence or absence of filters of fine cleaning of no effect on the air conditioner does not have
4. Fan has 3. 4 rotation speeds
5. Evaporator a radiator in which the cold freon is heated and its evaporation. Air blown through the radiator, respectively, is cooled
6. Horizontal blinds Emplay the direction of the air flow vertically. These blinds have an electric drive and their position can be adjusted from the remote control panel. In addition, blinds can automatically make oscillatory movements for uniform distribution of the air flow through the room
7. Indicator panel On the front panel of the air conditioner, indicators (LEDs) showing the operating mode of the air conditioner and signaling possible malfunctions are installed
eight. Vertical blinds Serve to adjust the direction of air flow horizontally. In household air conditioners, the position of these blinds can only be adjusted by hand. The possibility of adjusting from the remote control is only in some premium air conditioners models
Patron for condensate Located under the evaporator and serves to collect condensate (water formed on the surface of a cold evaporator). Water is excreted from the pallet through the drainage hose
Management payment usually located on the right side of the inner block. On this board there is an electronics block with the central microprocessor
Steper compounds located in the lower rear of the inner block. Copper pipes connecting the outer and internal blocks are connected to them

Vacuuming. why and how to do

The last stage, which ends the installation of the air conditioner with your own hands is to remove air and moisture, the remnants of the Argon from the system. When installing, wet air from the room or from the street fills copper tubes. If it is not removed, it will get into the system. As a result, the compressor will work with a greater load, it will warm up more.

To make the track look more neat, it can be wrapped in aluminum tape

The presence of moisture also negatively affects the performance of the system. The fact is that the freon that the air conditioners refuel contains a certain amount of oil for lubrication of elements from the inside. This oil is hygroscopic, but fed with water, it less effectively lubricates the insides, and this leads to their premature wear.

From all this it follows that the system will work without removing air, but not very long and with possible shutdown by overheating (if there is such automation).

You can remove air from the system in two ways: using a vacuum pump or a certain amount of freon released from the outdoor unit (it refuel at the factory and has some excess freon. just in case).

Method “zilch”

On the ports of the external unit, unscrew the plugs of the valves (in the photo they are indicated by arrows).

Unscrew the valve lids

We will carry out operations with the lower port (larger diameter), which sticks out perpendicular to the body. Under the lid there is a hexagon connector, select the key to the size of the key.

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Under the lid is a valve with a hexagon connector

Further, with this key, we turn the valve 90 ° for one second, return to the previous position. We let in a little freon into the system, there was an excess pressure there. Pressing with a finger on the spool, which is located on the same port. By this we release a mixture of freon and gases located there. We click literally for seconds. The often mixture should remain so as not to launch a new portion of air inside.

You can repeat 2-3 times, no more, the second time you can rotate the valve located above. With a highway of 2-3 meters-it can be 3 times, with a length of 4 meters-only two. There is not enough freon for more reserves.

When the air is practically removed, we wrap the plug to the output with the spool (gas station), open the control valve (under the hexagon) completely, starting the freon into the system. We smear all the joints with soap foam to make sure that they are sealed. You can run.

Vacuum pump

For this operation, a vacuum pump, a high.pressure tube, a group of two pressure gauges. high and low pressure are needed.

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Without opening the valves on the control valves, we connect the hose from the vacuum pump to the entrance with the spool, we turn on the equipment. It should work for 15-30 minutes. During this time, all air, couples, nitrogen remains stretch.

Then the pump is turned off, the pump is closed but not disconnected and left another 15-20 minutes. All this time it is necessary to observe the testimony of manometers. If the system is sealed, there is no pressure change, the arrow of the manometers froze on the spot. If the arrows change their position-somewhere there is a leak and it must be eliminated. You can find it using soapy foam and tighten the connection (usually the problem is at the site of connecting copper tubes to the outputs of the blocks).

Vacuuming air conditioning using a pump

If everything is fine without turning off the pump hose, completely open the valve that is below. Some sounds are heard inside the system-Freon fills the system. Now in the gloves you quickly surround the vacuum pump hose. a certain amount of ice freon can break out of the valve, and you are not to frostbite. Now we completely unscrew the valve at the top (where a thinner tube is connected).

Why in that order? Because when Freon is filled, the system is under pressure, which quickly locks the gas station when disconnecting the pump. That’s all, the installation of the air conditioner with your own hands is completed, you can turn on.

In fairness, I must say that such an operation. vacuuming. is carried out only in Russia and the nearest countries. In the same Israel where air conditioners work all year round, they do nothing like that. Why is a question for thought.



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