The following types of material are used to clad furnace structures:
- The classic tile for a brick oven. tiles. Terra cotta glazed ceramics with a specific shape. The front surface is smooth. patterned, with a picture, the inside. with a rump and a border. This structure noticeably increases the thermal conductivity. The tiles look really good.
- Majolica is a rather porous ceramic. However, on the face side it is covered with a smooth colored glaze that protects it from water. Majolica cladding for fireplaces in the living room.
- Terracotta is a tile made by firing high quality kaolin clay. Very durable, light weight, conducts heat well. The color scheme of terracotta preserves all the richness of natural colors. They decorate stoves in a rustic style.
- Clinker. is made of high-fusing slate clay. Exceptionally durable and heat-resistant, does not absorb moisture, does not crack. In appearance, it often resembles a brick.
- Porcelain. material is often used to wrap a fireplace. A kind of artificial stone, very high strength and very low porosity. It imitates the granite, marble, basalt and other natural materials.
Decorate tiles or majolica in the most different style: under Gzhel, under a brick, under a stone, under a mirror.
The preparatory stage
The procedure of tiling a metal or single-circuit brick stove requires some experience in such works. Beginners are often not able to cope with this task, because tiling the furnace with their own hands requires taking into account the strong and uneven heating of the surface being decorated. A more suitable option for the layman is a double-circuit brick stove, where the temperature of the outer circuit does not reach critical levels. Heating is more uniform here, which allows you to do with one type of facing material.
Choosing the material for the furnace facing ceramic tiles, it is necessary to take into account the type of fuel used: its burning temperature should not exceed the level of thermal resistance tile. For example, firewood burns at a temperature of no more than 800 degrees, and hard coal. 1500 degrees. Therefore, it is much easier to choose the cladding for a wood-burning stove. To determine the amount of stacking and decorative material, you need to carefully measure the surface of the heating structure.
After calculating the area of each side, they are summed up: dividing the final result by the area of one tile, you can easily calculate the number of tiles. You should take into account the width of the joints between the tiles (2-10 mm), making margin for marriage and trimming (about 15%).
The result of the work: the stove covered with tiles. Photo
Light tile was used for laying. A good option, if you take into account its peculiarities.
Stove with black and white tiles, laid in straight rows, looks appropriate in a rustic house or cottage.
In a similar way you can decorate the stove with a fireplace. Tiles with an unusual pattern will add charm.
Before acquiring and preparing materials for the work, you need to consider the type of basic construction and operating conditions:
- Single-circuit brick ovens are characterized by strong surface heating, therefore the facing material and mortar should be resistant to temperature. Devices of this type are used in rooms with high humidity and fluctuations in temperature (baths, saunas), which also affects the choice of tiles and adhesive composition;
- two-circuit brick units. The outer contour of the furnace in contact with the cladding material has a lower degree of heating than the inner contour and is characterized by the absence of local overheating points. Such characteristics allow you to perform the laying of one type of tiles using one type of mortar;
- stoves with metal surface. Furnace finishing is complicated by the difference in the rate of heating and cooling of metal and tile, which can lead to deformation or destruction of the cladding. Installation of lamellas is possible “dry”. on a special frame.
Before beginning work, calculate the total surface area of the heating device, including horizontal and vertical planes.
Measure the tiles and determine the number of elements required for tiling; to the result, be sure to add 10-15% reserve may be necessary in case of damage to the material during installation or to replace the surface that has fallen into disrepair during operation.
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Also decide on the method of installation: straight rows (with the exact alignment of the sides of the elements), diagonally, with an offset (type of masonry).
In fact, not every tile is suitable for finishing this place in the house, and, choosing it, you need to pay attention to several features. In addition to the obvious need to match the design of the premises, it is also necessary to choose the material. Terracotta, porcelain stoneware or clinker are ideal for the stove.
In addition, such a tile should be at least 6-10 millimeters thick, durable, heat-resistant and with a low number of pores.
Important! If you choose a tile for the stove in the bath, then the main factor will be its heat output.
Facing the furnace with ceramic tiles with their own hands
Stove or fireplace in the house becomes a key element of decor and contribute to a sense of warmth and comfort in the home. Stove tile cladding allows you to create different finishes and organically fit into the interior, made in any style, from classic to high-tech.
But, so that the beauty created will not deteriorate as long as possible, it is important to choose the correct tiling material and mortar for stove tile.
When choosing a mixture, it is necessary to take into account the special operating conditions of the stove or fireplace (the surface is very hot). This means that not only the tile, but also the adhesive that fixes it should have special fixing properties.
What mortar is used for laying tiles on the stove? This is the question that will first of all be of interest to the owner who has decided to make the lining of the furnace with his own hands.
Solutions and mixes for tiling stoves with tiles
The construction market offers many compositions for lining heated surfaces. But, it is possible to distinguish three principled approaches to obtaining mortar, having additional options.
There are many varieties of ceramic tiles. So, for the bathroom, stairs, floor, similar coatings are used. But for lining of stoves and fireplaces requires a completely different ceramic material, since we are talking about the objects, the operation of which takes place in conditions of high temperatures. Accordingly, the facing material for their finishing must meet stringent requirements:
Possibility of operation in conditions of high temperatures;
Resistance to mechanical impacts and scratches;
Only certain types of tile meet all of the above requirements. Let us consider them in detail:
Terracotta. It is made on the basis of clay and is an environmentally friendly material. It is very durable. it can take a blow, it is practically not scratched, it withstands low temperatures, so it can safely be used for decorating stoves, which are in very cold rooms. In addition, terracotta has excellent fire-resistant qualities: it can withstand not only high temperatures, but also their fluctuations.
Majolica. It is in fact terracotta, which is coated with a glaze. This is an ancient material, which in former times could only afford the rich stratum of the population. Now it is used to add a touch of luxury to any stove.
Clinker. Is a kind of alternative to fire brick. It is made on the basis of several types of clay with the addition of chamotte and dyes. The mixture is pressed and the finished tile is fired. The material is very durable, resistant to wear and tear and features a large palette of beige shades.
Porcelain stoneware. Rather complicated in its structure: it consists of the clay and sand mixture with the addition of crumb of granite, marble, metal salts, which is pressed under great pressure at high temperature. Has excellent thermal characteristics. In addition, the material is available in a wide variety of textures and colors, which allows you to successfully use it to imitate all kinds of finishing materials, including terracotta and clinker.
Reliable and durable stoneware from the Colliano collection by Kerama Marazzi. A good option for stoves and fireplaces.
Tiles. It is used as an artistic finish to furnaces and fireplaces. Make tiles, as well as terracotta, from clay, with subsequent firing. This material is good in operation at very high temperatures, has a high heat output, is environmentally friendly. But at the same time, its cost is not insignificant, which makes it not particularly popular.
Tools and materials
There are several options for attaching tiles to the oven. The first method is the most famous mounting on the glue. But it is also possible to install without adhesive mixture on a metal profile. The second option is more mobile. If you need to remove one element, it is easy to do.Depending on the chosen method of installation will vary and the necessary materials and tools. Preparation of everything you need must be made in advance, because in the process of work can not be distracted by trips to the store. What you will need:
- A grinding machine;
- Tile cutter. In the process of tiling you can not do without cutting the boards. It is easiest to do this with a special tool, but an angle grinder is used as a last resort. It is true that dirt and dust will be a lot, you will have to work in a respirator and goggles and on the street;
- Trowel. Several trowels are needed. Toothed for taking and applying mortar. Plain and angled for convenience and rubber for joints. You can also use other options for filling the joints: a construction gun or a simple version with a cellophane bag;
- Level and plummet. These tools are needed to check the evenness of the rows. You will also need a ruler, a tape measure, and a rule;
- A bucket for preparing grout and mortar. All this kneading by hand will not work, so you need a drill with a mixer attachment;
- A mallet for adjustment;
- A sponge to wipe off the excess;
- Primer and a brush to apply it.
If you plan to install it on a profile, you do not need mortar and a container for mixing it. Then get ready with metal shears, a wooden bar, and a steel angle.In addition to all of the above, you will need the tiles themselves.
Keep a supply of the material in case it gets damaged during shipping or work. Plaster and adhesive, grout.
.Mortar for handmade stove tiling
The advantage of homemade mortar from the components: environmental friendliness, low cost, good reviews, time test. Disadvantages: difficult to maintain the proportions, dusty and time-consuming to prepare.
However, most master tilers and stovemakers advise using a “natural” mortar for tiling the stove and offer several varieties.
1.1 Clay Mortar for Tiling
Clay mortar for tiling the stove with tiles Recommended for laying tiles and ceramic tiles.
Immediately emphasize the fact that the clay mortar, which consists of clay, water and fillers, is used for laying stoves, and for tiling. very rarely. This is due to the fact that high temperature imparts such properties as strength to clay. That in turn affects the ability of facing to play under the influence of temperature and leads to its cracking.
Fillers, which can be sand, sawdust, sawdust, wood chips, etc., should level out such feature of clay. The most effective filler is sifted river sand.
Composition of the clay mortar
The composition of the mortar depends on the fatness of the clay.
Fat content coefficient of clay: when the minimum (not more than 15%) of sand in clay, it is considered as fat. If the sand is within 15-25%. normal, more than 25%. lean.
How to determine the fatness of clay
Determine the type of clay can be without laboratory tests in several ways:
- Well knead the clay and roll it into a sausage of thickness 20-30 mm. Then gradually stretch it, watching the behavior of the mass. In the picture you can see how fat (a), normal (b) and lean (c) clay behaves.
Accordingly, the quality of the clay affects the proportions of the mortar for lining the oven.
Proportions of clay mortar
For greasy clay, the ratio of clay to filler will be 1:4, for normal clay 1:3, for lean clay 1:2.5.
The general rule is that the less clay, the greater is the ability of the mortar to withstand high temperatures without cracking. However, the more sand, the less adhesive capacity of the mortar. Therefore, it is important to maintain a golden mean and clearly adhere to the recommendations.
How to make a tile mortar for the stove without experience in furnace work?
Professionals advise a technique: adding salt to the clay mortar. 1 cup of table salt per 1 bucket of prepared clay mortar. Salt gives the mortar the ability to hold moisture and not to crack. You can also knead chamotte powder into the mortar, it will give the mortar the ability to withstand high temperatures. This is especially true for those who heat their stove with coal, not wood.
Water is added in a proportion of 25% of the clay volume. The readiness of the mortar is determined by its plasticity.
The consistency of the clay mortar in the photo below:
dry clay mortar. add water; 2. liquid. add clay; 3. normal.
Dry clay mortar Liquid clay mortar Normal clay mortar
How to mix the clay mortar properly?
Stirring the clay mortar is done with feet or a trowel. It is unacceptable to use a mixer, since.к. it churns up the clay and lowers the quality of the mortar.
1.2 Cement-clay mortar for masonry
To give the clay mortar strength, cement and chalk can be added to it.
Cement-clay mortar proportions (1:1:1:3)
Such mortar will have an increased adherence to the surface. The peculiarity of the mixture is that it is prepared in a dry. Cement is mixed with sand and chalk. Then clay slurry is added to this dry mixture, which is clay diluted with water.
After bringing the mixture to the desired consistency, one part of liquid glass can be added to it. This kind of mortar is used for tiling surfaces with heavy large-format tiles or tiles on a prepared surface.
For gluing standard sized ceramic tiles, craftsmen recommend using a mortar with a simpler composition:
1.3 Lime mortar
The mixture consists of 1 part of quicklime and 3 parts of sand.
The disadvantage of lime mortar. If used indoors, high humidity remains for a long time. Cement replaces lime today. Judging by the reviews, many people advise not to use a lime-based mortar for tiling the stove with tiles, and if the old coating was lime, it is better to remove (knock it down), to exclude the probability of delamination of the new coating.
1.4 Cement mortar for laying tiles on the stove
Cement mortar for tiling stoves with tiles Cement mortar is suitable for laying tiles on horizontal bases. Cement mortar after drying gaining less strength than clay, and therefore suitable for tiling bases, subject to periodic stresses. In addition, in this case there are no special requirements for the fixing properties of the mortar, as in the case of tiling vertical surfaces.
Composition of cement mortar (1:3)
To mix the mortar using a mixer or a special attachment on the drill.
When starting tiling the furnace with cement mortar, remember that the mortar quickly “shrinks”, which requires constant stirring.
Note. Laying of natural stone or mosaic on cement mortar will affect the appearance of the tiled stove surface, therefore it is better to use adhesive solutions based on white cement.
The following recommendations should be followed to ensure that the tiling adheres well to the surface of the stove:
Lining the furnace firebox with fireclay bricks Firstly, it is better to choose the mortar for tiling, on which the masonry of the furnace was made.
Secondly, lining the furnace firebox with fireclay bricks, will reduce the temperature of the surface and thus reduce the requirements to the adhesive solution. Refractory fireclay bricks are used for the lining, which are placed in the furnace (see chimney lining, html). photo) and creates a barrier to high temperature.
Materials prepared for www.moydomik.net