Installation and fastening of furnace devices. Installation of the slab in the brick furnace Proper installation of the slab
A cast.iron hobby of the furnace is made by casting. Cast iron combines carbon (more than 2%) and steel. And due to additional impurities of chemical elements such as phosphorus, manganese, silicon and sulfur, the physicochemical properties of the material are significantly improved. Cast iron stove is characterized by high indicators of refractory and strength, as well as inertial heat transfer (hot, it cools down for a long time). Another reason to buy a cast.iron stove for a stove is its immunity to corrosion. This is due to the fact that the surface after the ebb is covered with rust, which acts as a “protection”, preventing the penetration of corrosion deep into the material. In addition, the cast.iron plate is resistant to sharp temperature changes, which means that it does not crack and does not deform.
In order for the furnace hobs to serve as much time as possible, it is worthwhile to adhere to such simple rules:
- To lay the slab, use a liquid cement mortar, withstanding the distance from the upper rib of the oven in 5-6 mm;
- The largest burner should always be above the firebox;
- The brickwork of the upper row must be strengthened with a steel corner;
- Do not forget that along the entire perimeter of the plate to exclude deformation and cracking of the metal there must be gaps up to 2 mm;
- Correct the first loading of the furnace and score it, gradually warming up about 8
hours, and increasing the temperature by 70–80 degrees every hour. For proper heating, it is necessary to start heating with chips and chips, and then throw larger firewood. Having protered the oven for 8 hours, it must be left for cooling, until the firewood completely goes out.
If the buyer himself is not sure of his competence in terms of installing cast.iron plates, then it is better to resort to the help of professionals. Thanks to special knowledge and many years of work, they will help save their time and nerves. This is the case when it is better to give way to a specialist, so that later you do not have to pay for your own inexperience.
And then, when a beautiful stove with a well.installed cast iron plate on the surface appeared at your disposal, you can fully enjoy the warmth and comfort emitted by this design.
How to make a transit two storey brick oven with caps summer move with your hands
The ancestor of the cast.iron slab was a fire that served to protect against predators, cooking and the savior from the cold.
During the appearance of the first sedentary tribes, the stoves began to be coated with clay to maintain heat. In the Roman Empire, stoves made of stone and clay appeared. Until the 12th century, the furnaces did not have a chimney, they drowned “in black”, and as a result, there are many victims from carbon monoxide.
In the 12th century, with the appearance of chimneys, food was prepared on vertels, and all kinds of sausages were smoked in chimneys. At the beginning of the Renaissance, the feudal lords determined the place of the furnace in the kitchen, and the top of the furnace began to be covered first with a stone and then cast.iron slabs.
Due to the harsh Russian winter, the kitchen and heating oven in Russia was combined for quite some time. The stove was considered the heart of any house. She treated from ailments, slept on her, cooked, even washed. The stove began to flood from October to April. The stoves functioned not only in village, but also in city houses.
Thus, a cast.iron stove for the furnace came to modern life.
Cast iron slabs, they are also hobs, mount directly on the upper horizontal surface of the furnace. Cast iron plate has inertial heat transfer.
Когда в печи горит топливо (дрова, уголь, то), чугунная плита хорошо раскаляется и потом долго остается горячей, отдавая тепло. When the cast iron is heated, it can be used as a hob.
Modern cast.iron slabs for installation on the furnace have a number of characteristics that distinguish them from other similar options.
- Cast iron used for casting the plate has increased strength.
- Due to the fact that the composition of the material also includes a number of chemicals, the physical characteristics of the product are improved.
- Throughout the service life, cast iron does not deform, does not crack and tolerates high temperatures well.
- Cast iron slab is resistant to temperature changes, maintaining its appearance and initial operational properties.
- Plates for installation on the furnace are not subject to corrosion.
In general, all cast.iron stoves for furnaces are divided into two groups: prefabricated and whole. In both cases, the product can serve as a thermal conductor evenly warming the air in the room, and as a burner for cooking.
The collective cast.iron slab is a panel with rings installed on it, which are included in each other. By adjusting the number of rings and their diameter, you can choose the best option, depending on what dishes you cook.
This option has one important advantage. thermal gaps that allow the stove to warm up evenly, without deforming under the influence of high temperatures.
A whole slab due to the absence of thermal gaps is less reliable when using. Cast iron can expand under the influence of too high temperature and deform. However, alloy whole cast.iron slabs are much cheaper and it is easier to install them on your own.
If when choosing a stove for a stove, you came across a model with a cast ornament or a pattern, look at this option more carefully. Due to the patterns of heat transfer, the slab increases, which positively affects its functionality.
Installing a cast.iron slab on the furnace is a serious matter. Violation of technology and incorrect selection of materials can lead to the fact that during the first firebox, the plate is deformed or cracked due to expansion.
Yes, cast.iron furnace plates have increased resistance, but do not forget that when heated, they expand, which should be taken into account by the master when installing.
The nuances of the choice
A wide variety of species often makes you doubt the correctness of your choice. So that there are no problems and have to regret the decision, it is necessary to decide on the material that will protect the walls next to the stove, pipe or fireplace.
For wall decoration around the furnaces and in boiler rooms
Fire.retardant wall decoration around the furnaces and boiler houses is prescribed by fire safety rules and is mandatory.
- Fireproof plasterboard panels can be used as the basis for wall lining near the furnace.
- Using chamotum brick and/or solution, create refractory protection in the form of a screen near the furnace. The surface is laid out (in the stove) with bricks, and the gaps and cracks are sealed with the solution.
- But the most effective protection of surfaces adjacent to fireplace and stoves made of stainless steel. Steel sheets are used to install fire.retardant screens. They are mounted in a distance of 1-5 cm from the furnace or fireplace body.
- Thermal protection allows fiberglass laid under steel sheets even more.
- Popular and cast iron screens.
- Basalt rolls and mats, flexible and light, are also used to shield furnaces and fireplaces.
- For fire protection of boiler houses, like baths, terracotta or porcelain tiles are ideal. They are not deformed and do not burn, and are also easy to maintain. they are easy to clean and wash. Thanks to high decorative properties, they can also be used to design various surfaces.
For the pipe
Places of chimney exit in order to avoid fire, it is necessary to reliably thermal insulation. To do this, use mullito.nerd slabs and cardboard, which are perfectly served with processing. In them you can cut the holes of any configuration for chimneys and other structural elements of the furnaces.
For the bath
The walls of the baths are finished with heat.resistant materials so that they have refractory properties. To do this, use:
- “Pie” of metal reflective coating and heat.insulating gaskets;
- fire.resistant drywall;
- Terracotta tiles.
Fire protection for the furnace in the bath also provide products made of foamed vermiculite. For the layer between the first rows of masonry of the furnace and a wooden floor, vermiculite plates are preferable, since they are stronger than cardboard.
For the fireplace
The main remedy for facing the fireplace, along with fire.resistant drywall, is fire.resistant ceramics:
All of them are moisture resistant and resistant to temperature changes. Choose tiles with labeling a-it is better than tiles with v-marching.
The whole cast.iron plate is a flat sheet of metal on which one or two stationary diameter burners are placed. In addition, there are deaf furnace flooring, on their surface the burners are not provided at all.
A small amount or complete absence of thermal gaps make a solid plate less practical and reliable. With severe encouragement, cast iron expands and, without sufficient free space, may be deformed.
But the whole stove has its own advantages: it is simple in installation and more acceptable in cost, in comparison with prefabricated slabs.
Note! To increase heat transfer indicators, a cast.iron slab can cast with a notch or volumetric ornament.
Types of cast.iron flooring
Cast iron hobs can be made in two types: prefabricated and whole. The differences in these species are insignificant, because both perform their main functions: heating and cooking.
These designs are a sheet of cast iron and several round details of a different nature. Cast iron rings for the furnace are inserted into each other like a puzzle. Due to the fact that the surfaces have gaps, the metal is not deformed under the influence of high temperatures.
And different diameters of the rings allow you to cook food in various dishes as quickly as possible. After all, to heat a large pot of water, you can use the circle of the largest diameter, and it is more convenient to put an iron mug on the smallest detail.
A cast iron sheet for a furnace with a solid surface or fire.diameter burners belongs to the category of whole flooring. Due to the integrity of the design of the clearance for narrowing and expansion of the metal, they do not have.
This feature reduces the practicality and durability of such products. But they have their advantages. Easy installation and relatively low price due to the simplification of the design, many customers like the design.
Which is better. steel or cast.iron?
The stove for the furnace is made of cast iron or metal. Which product has more advantages: a cast iron or steel stove for a furnace?
There are a huge number of manufacturers of these goods that insist on the advantages of cast iron over steel.
Advantages of cast.iron flooring:
- strength and durability. The cast.iron slab will last a decade to you reliably.
- heat transfer. Due to the presence of certain chemicals in the composition of cast iron used for casting sheets, it has the best physical characteristics compared to steel.
- Resistance to deformation and corrosion.
- temperature resistance resistance. Due to this, a cast.iron hob for the furnace retains its original appearance throughout the use of.
Some manufacturers focus on some of the advantages of cast iron compared to steel: cast iron does not dry the air. You do not have to use air humidifiers or other devices to maintain humidity in the room.
The main advantages of steel plates are:
- Fast heating. Literally after a couple of minutes, the surface heats up to the desired temperature. But such a plate cools much faster than cast iron.
- Light weight. Usually steel slabs weigh ten times less cast.iron. This allows you to carry out a quick installation, without making special efforts. But due to small weight, such products can withstand a small load. If you use a fairly heavy dishes, it is better to give preference to a cast.iron slab.
- Small cost. for cast.iron stoves for the furnace are greater than for steel slabs. But their life is much higher
The construction of a wood furnace
After the type of device is selected, materials are prepared and a suitable place is selected, you can start work.
The process of creating a wood stove is conditionally divided into three stages:
All work should be done clearly by technology. During operation, such a device is heated and subjected to high loads. Even a small mistake in the future can turn into big problems. If doubts arise, it is better to consult an experienced stove.
A separate foundation device
The base for the furnace should not be connected to the tape or columnar foundation of the house. The device is heavy, it will more precipitate the base than the walls and roofs. Therefore, even at the design stage, you need to take into account this moment.
If the house is already built, and the stove is still needed, you will have to open the floor, get to the ground and fill in a separate base. The exception is a monolithic foundation, its bearing ability will withstand such an additional load without noticeable deformations.
First, they dig a pit of the same shape as the base of the furnace, but a little larger, about 20 cm for each side, and about half a meter deep.
After that, the following operations are performed:
- The soil at the bottom is thoroughly aligned and trim.
- Pour a layer of sand to the bottom, it is also trim and moisturized, the recommended thickness of the sand cushion is about 90 mm.
- Lay on the walls of the roofing material, this is a waterproofing layer.
- If necessary, the roofing material is strengthened with the help of boards and bricks, which act as formwork.
- A layer of gravel is poured and trim on the sand.
- A reinforcing mesh is made from a metal rod, the wire is used for knitting.
- A solution consisting of cement with the addition of sand and crushed stone in a ratio of 2: 1: 2 is poured into a third of the remaining height.
- The next cement-sand layer (3: 1) is filled, leaving about five centimeters to the top of the pit.
- After that, put another layer of the same mixture to the very top.
- The screed is aligned with the rule.
Now you need to wait about four weeks so that the fresh foundation freezes well.
It is recommended to moisten the surface of the base with water daily and cover with a layer of film so that the process passes evenly.
After that, the formwork is removed, and the upper part of the base is covered with two or three layers of roofing material, which are glued with bitumen mastic. Waterproofing will protect the housing of the stove from contact with moisture from soil. The lower layer of the foundation, if desired, can be made of cement and gravel, the recommended proportion is one to three.
If the roofing material was not at hand, ordinary boards are suitable for the role of formwork, but they need to be covered with plastic film to protect from water. It is best to build the foundation under the stove to the level of flooring or even slightly higher. It’s easier to carry out finishing work.
The part that rises above the floor is usually done a little more, for this the formwork is expanded. It will also not hurt to perform a separate reinforcement of the upper layer. a mesh with a step of about 75 mm is suitable.
The laying order of the furnace
To understand how to fold a simple stove with a stove, first perform the so.called dry masonry, t.e. lay out bricks in rows, according to the planned scheme, but without a solution. Instead of it use pieces of plywood, rails or planks of a suitable size. The space between the individual rows should be the same.
If the brick lay down correctly, dry masonry is disassembled, after which they prepare the pantry and work with it. The easiest way is to use clay powder from the store. It just needs to be correctly diluted according to the instructions and add sand.
With clay, everything is a little more complicated. First you need to soak it with water for about a day. After that, the sand is added to the resulting mixture of water and clay in small portions and knead the composition with the hands until a homogeneous state. The amount of sand depends on how fat is used.
As a result, the resulting mixture will become thick enough not to drain from the shovel, but to crawl from it. In addition, the composition should not stick to a metal tool. If the resulting mixture corresponds to these characteristics, you can start masonry. Here is an example of a scheme for a small stove of a combined type.
First apply marking to the roofing material glued to the base.
The first two rows are made continuous, while the vertical joints between whole bricks in the neighboring rows should not coincide.
The following two rows are performed with lumenes for blowing and holes for cleaning the chimney. Close the openings with metal doors.
The doors before installation should be prepared: drill in the corners of the hole, insert pieces of wire into them and wrap the frame with an asbestos cord. Pieces of wire are laid in a solution between bricks
The fourth row is made of fireclay brick, since the firebox is already beginning here. Part of the height of the brick is chosen, they put the grate on the opening of the opening.
The fifth row is performed in the same way as the fourth. From the sixth to the eighth, they continue to repeat the masonry, but they leave the clearance for the door of the furnace chamber.
A row above the door of the furnace will become the basis for the stove. Part of the brick is removed around the perimeter, lay it asbestos cord and put a cast.iron hob.
If everything is done correctly, the stove and the upper side of the ninth row of bricks will be at the same level.
Then they continue to lay out the side walls and the chimney channel. It will take about six more or seven rows. The next row should also include a visor hanging above the stove. To strengthen it, use a steel corner.
It remains to lay out the chimney, its height is nine bricks. In this example, on the sixth row out of the nine, they stopped laying out a partition between the left and middle channel. Thus, a clearance was created for the free movement of smoke.
Now you need continuous masonry over the left and central channels.
In the right smoke channel, a gate is inserted in front of the last row of brick and leave a clearance for a chimney.
It remains only to equip the chimney and perform facing work if they are necessary.
Which solution is used for masonry?
The reliability and durability of the finished furnace directly depends on the quality of the masonry solution. Masonry will be carried out using a solution on a sand-clan basis.
There is nothing complicated in the preparation of the solution. Take the clay, pour it with water and soak it. Sut the mixture through a sieve, and then stir in “clay milk”. At the end, add a certain amount of water to get a fairly viscous and plastic solution.
Remember, the reliability and strength of the furnace directly depends on the correct preparation of the pantry. Do everything as it should. the stove will effectively heat your house for many years. Impair the technology or decide to save a lot on the materials. the heat unit is unlikely to fully reveal its potential and stand for at least any long time.
Furnace heating of a two-storey house 80 m. 2 transit furnace on two floors. Part 4
Faces and parts of brick
The end of the brick is called a poke, the wide flat side. the bed, and the side surface. with a spoon. The ribs of the product are called a parlor. The masonry is carried out by installing the product on the bed, which is considered the working surface. In the only version, the elements are placed on the spoon if the wall is erected in ¼ brick.
Parts of stones that are different from complete brick are intended for the performing angles, wall turns, have conditional names:
The brick is divided into parts with a pick, hitting a spoon, and not on bed, while holding a stone, leaning on the rib. A small volume of incomplete elements of factory production is ordered from the supplier.
What is important to consider when installing the oven in a brick furnace
Cast iron hob (in other words, hobs). products designed both for heating the home and for cooking.
Cast iron hobal
Cast iron. the material is unpretentious, but even it has its own weaknesses. First of all, it is natural fragility. Inaccurate handling of the stove, blows lead to the appearance of cracks and chips on the surface. It is impossible to brew defects, so such a plate will have to be thrown away.
The hot plane is sensitive to the flow of liquid on it. The sharp cooling of the plate is fraught with the appearance of cracks and a violation of the tightness of the seal.
The surface of the plate does not need to be additional processing by any compounds. It is enough to regularly wipe the cold plate with a damp cloth, and the burnt remains of food are removed with a stiff brush. Rust rags due to long downtime will come down immediately after heating the stove.
To clean the surface, folk methods are popular: soda, soda with vinegar, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, mustard powder. You can not use combustible fluids (solvents, acetone) and potent detergents containing acids. It is best to use mechanical cleaning methods with various abrasive materials.