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Induction furnace for melting metal with your own hands

Handheld Induction Heater Melts a Lock!

Advantages and disadvantages

In addition to the listed advantages, the device has a number of disadvantages:

  • During metal smelting, the slag is heated by the metal mixture, and as a result, it has a lower temperature;
  • When using the device is often difficult to remove impurities from the metal of sulfur and phosphorus.

Types of equipment

Only two types of furnaces are widely used: crucible and channel furnaces. They have similar advantages and disadvantages, the only difference being in the operating method used:

induction, furnace, melting, metal, your, hands
  • In the crucible type furnace, each charge must be loaded separately. The principle of operation is the following: the metal is loaded inside the inductor, after melting it is poured out and the next portion is loaded. As a rule, such a model is purchased for small workshops, where work is performed with a small amount of raw material.
  • channel models are characterized by the fact that they allow melting of metal continuously. The design allows the loading of a new portion of metal and the draining of already molten during work. The only disadvantage of this model is that it causes difficulties at the moment of draining, as the draining channel must be filled.

The crucible type of induction furnace is the most popular. This is due to their high performance and ease of operation. In addition, a similar design, if necessary, can be made by yourself.

Homemade versions occur quite often. Their creation requires:

An experienced electrician, if necessary, can make the inductor with his own hands. This design element is represented by a winding of copper wire. The crucible can be purchased in the store, but as a generator using a lamp circuit, hand-assembled battery of transistors or welding inverter.

Using a welding inverter

Induction furnace for melting metal with their own hands can be created by using a welding inverter as a generator. This option is the most widespread, as the effort involved is only concerned with the manufacture of the inductor:

  • Thin-walled copper tube is used as the basic material. The recommended diameter is 8-10 cm.
  • The tube is bent according to the desired pattern, which depends on the features of the enclosure used.
  • The distance between the coils should be no more than 8 mm.
  • The inductor is placed in a textolite or graphite housing.

After creating the inductor and placing it in the case, it remains only to install the purchased crucible in its place.

Using transistors

Such a circuit is quite complicated in its design, using resistors, several diodes, transistors of different capacities, a film capacitor, copper wire with two different diameters, and rings from the chokes. The recommendations for assembly are as follows:

  • When using the scheme under consideration, the construction will be strongly heated. That is why it is necessary to use effective cooling.
  • Acquired capacitors are assembled in a single circuit to obtain a battery.
  • Throttle rings are used as the basis for the inductor. A previously purchased copper tube with a diameter of approx. 1 mm is wound around it. The number of turns determines how much power the homemade furnace will have. Recommended range is from 7 to 15 turns.
  • A second copper tube, which should be about 2 mm in diameter, is wound onto the cylindrical shape object. It is worth considering that the ends of this tube should be left large, since they will be used to connect to the power supply.
  • A 12 volt battery can be used as a power source.

The circuit created is placed in a textolite or graphite case, which are dielectrics. Scheme involving the use of transistors is rather complicated in execution. Therefore, you should only undertake the construction of such a furnace if you have certain skills.

Furnace with tubes

Recently, tube furnaces have been created less and less frequently, as they require careful handling. The circuit used is simpler than in the case of transistors. Assembly can be carried out in several stages:

  • As a current generator, 4 beam lamps are used, which are connected in parallel.
  • The copper wire to be used must be connected in a spiral. The coils to be created must have a diameter of 8 to 16 cm, and the distance between them must be at least 5 millimeters. It is worth considering that quite a large amount of wire is required, since a crucible must be placed within the coils.
  • The coil that is created is placed in a housing made of a material that does not conduct electricity.
  • To increase the efficiency of the circuit, an additional trimmer capacitor can be connected.
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The lamps used must be protected from mechanical influences.

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Induction furnace is a familiar phrase to those whose profession is indirectly or directly related to metallurgy. After all, it is in these furnaces that the process of melting metal.

The principle of operation of an induction furnace is the process of obtaining heat from electricity generated by an alternating magnetic field. Induction furnaces convert energy via an electromagnetic-electrical-thermal process.

Induction furnaces are divided into different types:

The channel-type furnace is characterized by the location of the inductor with the core inside the metal. In the crucible furnace, the inductor is placed around the metal.

Induction furnaces have many advantages over other furnaces or boilers:

Instantaneous heating; focusing of the energy; safety and environmental friendliness of the device; no carbon monoxide; great possibilities in choosing the capacity, operating frequency.

DIY induction heater that can BOIL STEEL

In industry, such furnaces are used for melting cast iron and steel, copper and aluminum, as well as precious metals. These furnaces have different capacities and frequencies. It was the principle of the induction furnace that led to the microwave oven that we all know in our daily lives.

If you have a special circuit for this device, it is quite realistic to make it with your own hands. You need a high-frequency generator with an oscillation frequency of 27.12 MHz.

The circuit is assembled on 4 electronic lamps(tetrads), you also need a light bulb to signal the readiness to start work.

The peculiarity of such an induction furnace, assembled with your own hands according to such a scheme, will be that the handle of the capacitor is outside. And, most importantly, the part of the metal located in the coil will melt very quickly, even in a device with low power.

Induction furnace with his own hands schematic diagram

From vortex and hysteresis losses;

Use high wattage lamps, but no more than 4 pieces. The oven will be powered from 220 V mains with a rectifier. If you will use the furnace for melting metal, use graphite brushes, if for heating nichrome spiral.

The induction furnace is easy and economical to assemble with your own hands. It can be used to heat the garage, cottage or as an additional source of heating in your home.

Types of induction furnaces

Looking at the classification of devices, we note that the heating of workpieces can take place both inside and outside the coil. That is why there are two types of induction furnaces:

  • Channel-type. This kind of device has small channels, which are located around the inductor. To generate an alternating magnetic field, the core is located inside.
  • The crucible. This construction is characterized by a special vessel called a crucible. It is made of refractory metal with a high melting point.

It is important that the channel-type induction furnaces have a large overall dimensions and are designed for industrial melting of metal. Through a continuous melting process, a large amount of molten metal can be produced. Ducted induction furnaces are used to melt aluminum and cast iron, as well as other nonferrous alloys.

Teague induction furnaces are characterized by relatively small dimensions. In most cases, this kind of device is used in jewelry making, as well as for melting metal at home.

Installations on transistors are quite widespread, since they can be made on their own with minimal time and money.

How to assemble the proper induction furnace?

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You can melt a small piece of iron in a self-assembled induction furnace. It is the most effective device that operates from a 220V home power outlet. The oven comes in handy in the garage or workshop, where it can be placed simply on the workbench. There is no point in buying it, as the induction furnace with their own hands is collected for a couple of hours, if a person knows how to read electrical schemes. It is not desirable to do without a diagram, since it gives a complete picture of the device and avoids wiring errors.

The device

    Self-made furnace for melting metals has a fairly simple design and consists of three main blocks, placed in a common case:

The crucible is placed in the inductor, and the ends of the coil are connected to the current source. When current flows in the coil, an electromagnetic field with a variable vector appears around it. In a magnetic field, eddy currents occur that are directed perpendicular to its vector and pass through a closed loop inside the winding. They pass through the metal placed in the crucible, heating it to the melting point.

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Advantages of the induction furnace:

  • fast and uniform heating of the metal immediately after turning on the installation;
  • directionality of heating. only the metal is heated, not the entire installation;
  • high melting rate and homogeneity of the melt;
  • There is no evaporation of the alloying components of the metal;
  • the setup is environmentally friendly and safe.

A welding inverter can be used as an induction furnace generator for melting metal. You can also assemble the generator with your own hands according to the diagrams below.

Metal melting furnace on welding inverter

This design is characterized by simplicity and safety, since all inverters are equipped with internal overload protections. The entire furnace assembly in this case comes down to making an inductor with your own hands.

It is usually made in the form of a spiral of copper thin-walled tube with a diameter of 8-10 mm. It is bent according to the template of the desired diameter, placing the coils at a distance of 5-8 mm. Number of turns. from 7 to 12, depending on the diameter and characteristics of the inverter. The total resistance of the inductor must be such as not to cause an overcurrent in the inverter, otherwise it will be tripped by the internal protection.

The inductor can be fixed in a graphite or textolite case and a crucible can be installed inside. You can simply place the inductor on a heat resistant surface. The housing must not conduct current, otherwise eddy currents will flow through it and the unit’s output will be reduced. For the same reason, it is not recommended to place foreign objects in the melting zone.

When using a welding inverter, its housing must always be grounded! The socket and wiring must be rated for the current consumed by the inverter.

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Transistor induction furnace: schematic diagram

There are many different ways to build an induction heater with your own hands. A fairly simple and proven circuit of a furnace for melting metal is shown in the figure:

    To assemble the installation with your own hands, you will need the following parts and materials:

The sequence of assembly with your own hands:

  • Field-effect transistors are installed on heat sinks. Since the circuit in operation is very hot, the heat sink must be large enough. You can also mount them on one heat sink, but then you need to insulate the transistors from the metal with rubber and plastic pads and washers. The pinout of the field effect transistors is given in the picture.
induction, furnace, melting, metal, your, hands
  • It is necessary to make two chokes. To make them, copper wire with a diameter of 1.2 mm is wound onto rings taken from any computer power supply. These rings are made of powdered ferromagnetic iron. On them you need to wind 7 to 15 turns of wire, trying to keep the distance between the turns.
  • Wrapping the inductor is made of copper wire with a diameter of 2 mm. Wind 7-8 turns of the coil on a cylindrical object of a suitable diameter for the crucible, leaving long enough ends for connection to the circuit.
  • Connect the elements on the circuit board according to the diagram. Use a 12 volt, 7.2 ah battery as a power supply. The current consumption in operating mode is about 10 A, the battery capacity in this case is enough for about 40 minutes.If necessary, fabricate the furnace housing from heat-resistant material, such as textolite.The power of the device can be changed by changing the number of winding turns of the inductor and their diameter.

Heater elements can overheat during continuous operation! A fan can be used to cool them.

Induction heater for melting metal

Induction furnace with lamps

A more powerful induction furnace for melting metals can be assembled with your own hands on electronic lamps. The diagram of the device is shown in the picture.

To generate the high-frequency current 4 beam lamps connected in parallel are used. 10 mm diameter copper tube as inductor. The unit is equipped with a trimmer capacitor for regulating the power. The output frequency is 27.12 MHz.

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To assemble the circuit you need:

  • Four tetrodes electron tubes, 6L6, 6P3 or G807 can be used;
  • 4 chokes of 1001000 µH;
  • 4 0.01 μF capacitors;
  • neon indicator lamp;
  • tuning capacitor.

Assembling the device with your own hands:

  • Copper tube is used to make an inductor by bending it into a spiral shape. The diameter of the coils is 8-15 cm, the distance between the coils is at least 5 mm. The ends are tinned for soldering to the circuit. The diameter of inductor must be 10 mm larger than the diameter of the crucible.
  • To place the inductor in the housing. It can be made of heat-resistant non-conductive material, or of metal, with thermal and electrical insulation from the circuit elements.
  • Assemble the lamp cascades according to the scheme with capacitors and chokes. Cascades are connected in parallel.
  • Connect a neon indicator lamp. it will signal the readiness of the circuit to work. The lamp is led to the body of the installation.
  • In the circuit include trim variable capacitor capacity, its handle is also derived on the case.

For all lovers of delicacies cooked by cold smoking, we suggest to learn here how to make a smoker with your own hands quickly and easily, and here to see photos and video instructions for making a smoke generator for cold smoking.

How to make an induction furnace with your own hands

To create an effective unit, you need to consider the following parameters:

First, you need to get all of the necessary circuit parts right to get adequate melting conditions in the workshop. If you build the unit with your own hands, the oscillator frequency should be 27.12 MHz. The coil should be made of wire or a thin copper tube, with no more than 10 turns.

The power of electronic lamps must be high. The circuit provides for the installation of a neon lamp, which will be used as an indicator of the readiness of the device. The circuit also provides for the use of chokes and ceramic capacitors. Connection to a household outlet through a rectifier.

Induction furnace, made by your own hands, looks as follows: a small stand on legs, to which the generator with all the necessary circuit parts is attached. And already the inductor is connected to the generator.

Characteristics

When creating an induction melting furnace with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account certain technical characteristics affecting the melting rate of the metal:

  • generator power;
  • impulse frequency;
  • Eddy current losses;
  • hysteresis losses;
  • The intensity of heat transfer (cooling).

Induction furnace for melting metal

Induction furnace is a heating device, where for melting steel, copper and other metals, the method of induction influence is used (the metal is heated by currents, excited by a non-variable field inductor). Some consider induction furnaces a type of resistance heater, but the difference is in the way energy is transferred to the heated metal. First the electrical energy becomes electromagnetic, then electrical energy again and only at the very end does it become thermal energy. Induction furnaces are considered the most advanced of all gas and electric furnaces (muffle furnaces, steel furnaces, mini furnaces) because of their method of heating. In induction produces heat within the metal itself, and the use of thermal energy is most efficient.

Induction furnaces are divided into two types:

The latter are considered more modern and useful (heaters with a core, because of its device, are limited in power). The change from channel to crucible ovens began as early as the early 1900s. Nowadays they are widely used in industry.

However, at the moment, melting steel is more often made with such a heating structure as an arc steelmaking furnace, it uses the thermal effect for melting, and it is more convenient and practical. With your own hands you can make many simple heating structures. For example, a homemade melting furnace is very popular. If you decide to build a heating mini structure with their own hands, you need to know its structure. There are many kinds of induction furnaces, but we will describe just a few of them. If necessary, you will be able to use the necessary diagrams, drawings and video recordings.

Author

Kerariel

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