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How to build a smorgasbord with a stove. theory and practice
Every owner of a small detached house or cottage dreams of keeping their home warm and cozy when the weather turns cold. However, most of these houses are located far from urban heating networks, so there is a need to arrange an independent heating. The solution in this case can be called a heating and cooking brick stove Shvedka, made with their own hands, which is one of the ways to heat your own home. The advantage of this design is the presence of a cooking stove, therefore, in parallel with simultaneous heating of several rooms you can cook food.
How to make a Swedish stove with their own hands?
The most interesting and useful thing in the economy is a stove. Now many wealthy people are trying to install stoves in their homes. Warmth and comfort in the house, the quiet burning and crackling of wood soothes the nerves and relieves the stress of the working day. One of the most practical models. the Swedish stove. This heating and cooking design, and it heats the house, and it can be cooked on it, and the device itself is quite attractive and takes up little space. Swedish stove is installed near the walls of adjacent rooms for better heat distribution to all rooms of the house.
So, we will tell you how the Swedish stove is arranged, and if you decide to make a stove in your house with your own hands, then after reading this article, you only need to start and no questions.
When using the stove, never close the damper if there is even one unextinguished charcoal in the stove. When the damper is closed, the heat stays in the room longer and the stove cools down slower. If there are embers in the stove and the damper is closed, the carbon monoxide will go into the room and not down the chimney as it should.
Design and principle of operation
The classic Swede is a symbiosis of two heaters: the traditional cooking stove and a slightly expanded Dutchman. a simple channel-type stove. An indispensable attribute of the construction. the oven, located next to the firebox.
- The flame burning in the furnace heats directly the hob. Oven next to it is separated by a quarter-brick or half-brick wall, so it gets its heat from the firebox heat and flue gases.
- Glowing combustion products wash the oven body from above and behind, then under the influence of the natural draught of the chimney go down into the lower zone, where the outlet channel is located.
- Through the specified aperture, the hot gases leave the cooking section and penetrate into the heating panel, consisting of 3-4 vertical ducts. Moving along the chimney, combustion products heat the brick walls, then leave to the outside through the chimney.
- Above the cooking niche is a drying cabinet with stoves, heated from below by the stove and from behind by the duct system.
Note. There are stoves with horizontal ducts, but because of the accumulation of soot such designs are used less frequently.
The combustion chamber “Swedka” together with the oven forms a mini-enclosure, because the horizontal outlet channel is located at the bottom. On their way to the opening, the heated gases give off a lot of heat to the cast iron lid of the stove and to the metal walls of the oven. Thanks to this device “Swedish” is inferior in efficiency Russian stove, but it is more compact and easy to perform.
Initially, the Swedish heating and cooking stove is designed to be placed in the partition between the two heated rooms. the kitchen and the bedroom (or living room), as shown in the photo below. The first room is heated by the stove and the open oven, the second. a brick grub. There are varieties of ovens with a mode of summer stroke. the damper is closed, the gases go to the output, bypassing the chimney rotation.
The photo shows a Russian stove, but the principle of placement is similar. in the partition between the rooms
Features of design
The classic Swedish stove, shown in the diagram in sectional view, consists of the following elements:
- The firebox and the ash chamber under it;
- A cast-iron cooking surface;
- Oven, installed at the same level as the grates;
- Above the stove there is a niche for drying things, if desired, it can be divided into several small compartments. stoves;
- A system of vertical ducts (flue channels) occupies the whole rear part of the heater.
There are 2 indispensable attributes by which the Swedish stove can be unmistakably distinguished from other designs found on the Internet and in technical literature. Firstly, this stove does not happen without an oven, and secondly, it always has a network of 3 chimneys in the back.
Reference. Thanks to its successful design, the Swedish stove became the basis for the development of more complex and efficient heat sources. Example. a two-burner heater without an oven A. Batsulina or stove with a fireplace in the back A. Ryazankin, shown on the photo.
A traditional Swedish stove works like this: when wood burns in the furnace, the infrared heat from the flame is transferred to the stove, and from it to the air in the room. Another part of the heat, together with the products of combustion, flows through the vertical partition to the body of the oven and then, through the passage in the lower part, to the channel system. There the flue gases make 3 turns, heating up the solid brickwork of the back wall, and exhausted through the chimney.
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The front niche, located at the top, receives heat from 2 sides. from the bottom of the stove and from the back of the chimney. Due to this distribution and developed system of heat extraction from the flue gases, the efficiency of the heater reaches 60%. See the design and order of construction of the classic Swedish stove in the video:
Furnace masonry rowing
During masonry work special attention has to be paid to the strength and evenness of the surface. Thus, the joints should not be an excess of mortar or voids, and all the channels on the inside should be perfectly smooth. In such a case, half a brick is needed for tying.
Swedish loggia Separate attention when masonry Swedish oven with their own hands is given to the cross-section of the flue duct. It must remain unchanged throughout the masonry furnace. Otherwise, even with minimal constriction, there may be a release of flue gases into the room.
When the first row is ready, you can put the ash door. Further work will be done on the basis of the chosen pattern. In order to form the interior space of the main heater elements, including the ash-pan, the bricks used for them are somewhat bent. Already in the next row the doors can be closed.
Materials and tools for laying the Swedish stove
To make a Swedish stove with your own hands with a size of 102x88x217 cm, you will need the following materials:
- Red brick M-200 550 pcs.
- Fireclay refractory brick 60 pcs.
- Furnace door (21×26 sm) 1 pc.
- The ash door (13×25 cm) 1 pc.
- Doors with holes (14×14 cm) 3 pcs.
- Damper 1 pc.
- Cast-iron hob (41×71 cm) 1 pc.
- Oven (45x36x30 cm) 1 pc.
- Grate 1 pc.
- Angle steel (4 mm) 4×4 cm 2 m.
- Sheet steel 2 m.
- Firebox hatch (50×70 cm) 1 pc.
- Clay mortar as needed.
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In addition, to fold the stove-Swedkova with their own hands, the following tools are needed:
With the help of the grouting you can give a decorative appearance to the joints between the bricks.
- Trowel. It is necessary for laying the clay mortar on the brick.
- Pick hammer. A rather heavy tool that is used to chip bricks, chip off incomplete bricks, and punch holes in masonry.
- A wooden mallet to knock down the bricks.
- Expanding bars are used to decorate the joints between the bricks.
- Level and spirit level.
- Mortar shovel. This is a type of scoop shovel, which is needed to stir the mortar and distribute it over the masonry or screed.
- Plummet, rule and angle.
- Folding M and tape measure.
- A string is needed to ensure that the masonry has strictly horizontal rows.
Swedish oven masonry
Despite its modest size, the Swedish oven with their own hands has a fairly large capacity. As previously mentioned, it is better to install it between two adjacent rooms so that the furnace was located in the kitchen, and the opposite wall of the stove was directed into the room. Such a device together with the chimney will have dimensions 20388.5102 cm.
The quantity of materials used, their sizes and other parameters are determined by the specific construction of the appliance and the masonry.
Like any other stove, the Swedish stove is installed on the foundation, the size of which should be larger than the dimensions of the future oven.
The foundation is made of broken bricks and macadam, and concrete is poured in layers. The last layer must be covered with waterproofing.
Brick layer masonry sequence
1st and 2nd rows. The 28 bricks are laid out.
3rd row. Here comes the installation of the ash-pit, the firebox and the supports for the vertical channel. In addition, you should take care of the door to remove the slag and clean the chimney. At this stage you will need 19 bricks and 0,5 fire bricks.
4th row. Connecting the vertical channels with each other.
5th row. All doors and ducts are bricked off, however, leaving room for the grate to be installed later. To cover the ash chamber only fireclay bricks are used. For this work you will need a regular brick in the amount of 16 pcs. and refractory. 8 pcs.
6th row. The fuel part is formed and the doors under the oven are installed. Consumption: normal bricks. 13 pcs., Refractory. 3 pcs.
7th row. The furnace chamber is installed. Requirement: Regular bricks. 13 pcs., Fireclay. 4 pc.
8th row. To close the entrance of the first vertical channel. We need 5 refractory bricks and 13 common bricks.
Row 9. The furnace chamber door is blocked. Red brick. 13, 5 pcs., fireclay brick. 5 pcs.
10th row. Overlapping of the oven. 15 bricks., Refractory. 4.5 pcs.
11th row. 16.5 pcs of bricks to be used for the brick chamber.
13th row. Same, but 15.5 bricks.
14th row. Same as the previous one. Number of bricks. 14.5 pcs.
row 15. The same applies. Will need 16 bricks.
16th row. The cooking chamber is overlapped. Use pre-prepared corners (4 pcs.) and plain bricks. 14,5 pcs.
18th row. This chamber is completed by covering it with 25.5 pcs. bricks.
18th row. A small corner is placed and 25 bricks are placed.
19th and 20th rows. A drying chamber, ventilation and exhaust system are set up and 16 bricks are used.
22nd row. The small drying chamber is covered with a prepared metal sheet. Brick. 16 pcs.
23rd row. The formation of both drying chambers continues.
24th row. The vertical ducts are connected to each other. 17 bricks are needed.
25th row. There is a connection between the steam hood and a three-meter vertical duct.
26th row. A larger angle and prepared metal strips are placed to completely overlap the drying chamber. It takes 16.5 bricks.
Row 27. The whole stove is covered. Using a simple brick in the amount of 32 pcs.
28th row. The masonry is gradually lengthened and widened. Consumption. 37 bricks.
29th row. At this stage it is necessary to return the original size of the masonry, that is 10, 5 bricks less than in the 28th row are used.
30th and 31st rows. The base of the pipe is formed by using 5 pcs. bricks in each row.
During the construction of the Swedish stove, it is necessary to strictly ensure that all surfaces are flat and solid. Joints should not have voids, as well as excess mortar, their thickness is not allowed to be too thick. For fireclay bricks this figure should not exceed 0.3 cm, for ceramic bricks 0.5 cm. The dressing is usually made in half brick length.
In addition, it is very important to monitor the cross-sectional indicator of the chimney ducts, the value of which should not change throughout.
Even the smallest constriction can prevent the normal passage of flue gases and, consequently, smoke in the room.
Separately, it is worth talking about the firebox door of the Swedish stove. This is the weakest element of the device, the so-called “Achilles’ heel”. Why? The fact that high temperature loads adversely affect the door and can lead to its loosening and even fall out. Therefore, in the construction of the Swedish stove is not recommended to use a standard door of steel sheet, it is better to install a cast, preferably with the tendons.
If you can not find a product with “tendrils”, you can use a homemade design. To do this, you need to take a piece of steel wire (3 mm thick and 0.7 m long), which is attached in pairs in a horizontal position. “Whiskers” are bifurcated in different directions in the form of a Latin letter “V”, and then walled up. If you do purchase a stamped door, it should be additionally reinforced with steel strips to extend its life.
Swedka has a number of additional functions, depending on the type of design. Traditionally, an oven and niches for storing food and drying laundry are built into the oven. In addition, the stove can be attached to the loggia and other necessary elements.
- Versatile functionality in a compact size;
- Many designs, providing the possibility of equipping the appliance with additional functions;
- high coefficient of efficiency;
- Oven functions can be used independently of each other. This is achieved by means of an adjustable damper;
- easy installation.
The disadvantage of this furnace can be called a fastidiousness to the materials used, that is folded it out of anything will not work.
When building an oven with your own hands, remember that the metal elements must never come into contact with the brickwork. Between them it is necessary to make a concrete or sandy layer of thickness not less than 6 mm. The slab itself, as mentioned earlier, is mounted in special ledges formed from the brick halves.
The stove is installed with the front side in the kitchen, and the opposite side should be in the living room it will heat.
“Swedka” occupies minimal space in the house, so it is recommended to install it even in small cottages. The stove is very economical to use. It can be heated with coal or wood.
It is worth remembering that a real, well-made stove has two types of chimney: summer and winter. When using a summer chimney, all the gases leave immediately through the chimney, but in winter use, the gases heat the furnace, and then continue to move through the numerous channels of the furnace and only then go outside the building.