Choice of flux
Not all flux is suitable for work with stainless steel, because the process is exposed to high temperatures. Experienced craftsmen recommend the use of borax. It is put in the contact zone and heated until it melts, and then the solder is fed.
If there is no borax, it is recommended to use orthophosphoric acid as flux. active compositions will have a negative impact on the solder layer.
Choice of materials and tools
Tools for soldering stainless steel: electrical soldering iron, gas torch, flux, solder, metal brush, solvent.
The electric soldering iron must have power not less than 60W, optimum is 100W, because a low-powered one won’t heat the parts to the desired temperature. If the solder needs to be put on large parts, a more powerful soldering iron is used. It is easier and faster to work with a soldering iron that has a non-burner tip and is more durable. The technical features of the soldering iron are limited by various circumstances. Only soft, low molten solder can be heated with this tool. Parts with a very high heat sink can be difficult to solder. Soldering iron tip temperature depends on the solder, so that it is possible to melt it. Too much power at home is not required, as it will only cause overheating, and when soldering small parts, overheating can burn them out.
It is desirable to buy such a soldering iron which has a variable level of heating. lasts longer and saves energy. A soldering iron that has continuous heating, constantly running at maximum power will fail much faster. Its tip splinters and breaks when exposed to high temperatures for a long time. It is not possible to melt brass with an ordinary soldering iron, you must use a gas torch for this metal. Its use makes soldering much more difficult, even if you use a compact type of gas can.
When choosing a solder, most often craftsmen prefer rods of lead and tin alloy.
Solder with cadmium is available. Zinc-based brazing alloys are in the soft category, but should not be used with carbon and low alloy steels, since the bond between them is poor and unstable. Pure tin solder is best suited for stainless steel, in addition, only this type of solder can be used if the soldered place will be in contact with foodstuffs.
Silver-manganese, chromium-nickel or pure copper brazing alloys may be used in dry or furnace brazing. A metal such as copper, most often has insufficient spreading on the surface, so use brass to solder copper to stainless steel. If soldering occurs in corrosive conditions, you can braze with silver tinols with a small addition of nickel.
In addition to solder, you also need flux, for soldering steel is not suitable for the usual rosin. This material is good for soldering copper, but for use on stainless steel, the flux must be active. Fluxes such as solder acid or orthophosphoric acid require immediate operation after application. When the application of phosphoric acid on the stainless steel solder places a lot of time passes, it forms on the surface a phosphate film that makes soldering difficult.
Very often the flux is borax, which is powdered or pasted onto the seam. Once it is melted, start heating the rest of the material to redness, and once it reaches 850 ° C, the solder is introduced into the seam.
How to solder with a rosin and tin soldering iron: technology
When materials and tools are prepared, you can begin the operation. To perform brazing of stainless steel at home, you need to follow these step by step instructions:
- Sand or brush the metal surface to remove the oxide film and other contaminants.
- Degrease the repaired part with solvent.
- Apply flux. rosin or soldering acid. on the treated surface. This step is not necessary if you are using combined tin solder, which already contains the above-mentioned substance. You need to apply flux immediately before soldering, because after about 10 seconds a film will form on the surface of stainless steel.
- Heat the fluxed soldering area with the tinned sting of a soldering iron.
- Apply solder if necessary, but you most likely will not cover the entire surface with tin the first time.
- Re-apply the flux and heat it up again with the soldering iron. Repeat this process until the metal surface is evenly covered with tin. The main thing is that the solder melts not from the soldering iron tip but from the heat stored in the workpiece. In addition, to make the soldering of stainless steel with tin better, you need to add rosin to the joints, which will remove the oxides from the solder.
- Wash the product from the remnants of flux. To perform this step, you need to prepare a solution consisting of water and detergent, and buy metal scrapers. Residues of rosin, according to craftsmen, clean up well with cold water, because in it the substance becomes brittle.
Soldering is quality if the result is an even surface. But in any case in the end the coating should be sanded with sandpaper or a file.
Soldering stainless steel with tin at home
How to solder stainless steel to stainless steel with tin and rosin? This is a very time-consuming process, to perform which you need to know all the subtleties and tricks of soldering work. If you follow the instructions discussed in this article, it will be possible to make a reliable connection of stainless steel products.
How to join stainless steel parts: the optimal technique
First, it is necessary to equip a workplace. The table should be made of steel or have a non-combustible surface. The main thing is to keep it flat. Also, you need to make good exhaust ventilation. In turn, in order to solder several products into one at home, you need to cover their parts with tin and fix them with each other. The next step is to heat the parts at the same time so that the red-hot solder joins together. You might have to add tin to the soldering zone by putting it on the tip of the soldering iron.
How to solder stainless steel with soldering iron
After that you need to heat the entire surface, and if the solder is good, you need to put the parts on a flat surface. The stainless steel product, assembled from two or more parts, should not be moved until the joints are fully cured. It is best to use mounting aids (like clamps or vices) to hold the soldered parts in place.
Before you start repairing the product, you need to prepare the following tools and materials:
- A simple soldering iron (100 watt minimum) or propane torch.
- Organic solvent (such as white spirit or acetone).
- Tin solder.
- rosin or phosphoric acid.
- Steel rope.
- A metal cleaning brush, file or sandpaper.
- A clean cloth for wiping.
However, before you solder stainless steel to stainless steel and, accordingly, repair the part, you should buy protective equipment: polyurethane gloves, goggles and a respirator. In addition, to connect large products you may need a more powerful soldering iron, the tip of which should be fireproof: this will not only increase the service life, but also increase the technical parameters of the tool. Regarding solder, it should also be said that for soldering food utensils or other containers, tin rods are suitable, since they contain fewer harmful impurities.
Bonding with other metals
The connection of two different metals, for example soldering copper with stainless steel, should be approached from the position of studying their properties. The metals have different melting temperatures, so the soldering process is considered one of the most difficult.
Joining copper and stainless steel in the home includes the processing of blanks, tinning edges and the soldering process itself.
It should be noted that you can solder copper and stainless steel with a soldering iron or a torch. The first tool is low-power, so it can not work with hard solder.
The soldering iron is also not used for soldering large contact areas because it takes so long. In addition, the flux will oxidize before it has time to fully heat up.
The torch is the best option. Not only can it be used for soldering stainless steel with copper but also brass.
By the way, when choosing solder you should pay attention to the brass rods. It is primarily the most common material for soldering stainless steel, it can be used even in the connection without flux. Note that brass is inferior to silver in many respects. But it’s cheaper. Only use it for simple non-reliable joints.
To get high-strength joints, it is better to use copper-phosphorus solder. It is more expensive, but it is a guarantee of high quality soldering. But silver alloys are the best.
The process of brazing copper or brass with stainless steel is no different. We need to grind the edges of the two metals, degrease them, and tin each edge separately.
Next, on the workbench to lay the two workpieces so that the gap between them left no more than 3 mm. Apply flux, heat, and then in the soldering zone is fed solder.
It must melt and spread on the edge of the workpieces. Once the gap is completely filled, soldering stops. The metals cool naturally. Flux residue is washed off with water.
Welding of stainless steel with a gas torch
Soldering stainless steel is a fairly complex and difficult job. To get a quality connection, you need to observe a lot of conditions. both in terms of choice of materials and soldering modes. Brazing alloys with up to 25% Ni or Cr is somewhat easier. They are also solderable to other metals and alloys, with the exception of Al and Mg. Home craftsmen mostly use tin brazing alloys.
Peculiarities of stainless steel brazing
Using tin and tin-based compounds, you can repair stainless steel products, as well as assembling small and lightly stressed homemade structures. Kitchen utensils and other household items can be repaired with an ordinary soldering iron and tin solder.
Brazing stainless steel in production is more complicated. Special industrial mixtures are used for soldering critical structures. Cr-containing workstations are required for the work. Work table must be metal or have noncombustible covering. Exhaust ventilation must be provided. both solder fumes and flux and degreaser fumes are harmful to the respiratory system. Welded parts must be firmly fixed stock fasteners. vise, clamps, clamps, struts.
The working area should not be cluttered; it may only contain weldable parts.
What is argon welding of stainless steel (TIG)?
TIG. it is a method of welding with non-consumable tungsten electrodes in a shielding gas. argon. Welding is performed with alternating or direct current of direct polarity. As additive material wire is used, which preferably has a higher alloying degree than the base metal.
Where argon welding of stainless steel is mostly used
This method is often used in professional manufacturing:
- aerospace industry;
- in the chemical industry;
- Automotive and other industries.
So, for example, argon arc welding of stainless steel TIG welding is suitable for welding of stainless pipes used for transportation of gaseous substances or liquids under pressure.
Conclusion: The method is very popular in large productions, because of the high quality of the welded joint.
What advantages and disadvantages does this method have in contrast to MMA and MIG/MAG
In comparison with other welding methods (MIG/MAG, MMA, submerged-arc welding), argon arc welding of stainless steel (TIG) has the following advantages:
- High quality welds are obtained;
- excellent visual control of the weld pool and the arc is possible;
- Due to the absence of metal transfer through the arc there is no splashing of metal;
- TIG welding can be performed in all spatial positions;
- no slag is formed in the welding process, which means that there are no slag inclusions in the weld metal.
The disadvantages of this method include the fact that TIG welding stainless steel tends to be slower than other arc welding processes (MMA or MIG), and is used where quality is a priority over time spent on the welding process. In addition, TIG welding is complicated, requiring practical skills of the performer.
Conclusion: Trained experienced executor in most cases prefers this method of welding because of the high quality of the weld.
What types of metals (steel) can be welded together with stainless steel with a TIG inverter
Welding of stainless steel with argon is carried out when it is necessary to weld a thin steel plate or the weld has special quality requirements.
TIG-welded stainless steel can be joined with almost all metals and alloys: carbon, structural and stainless steels, aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, brass, bronze, as well as perform surfacing of some metals on others.
What equipment and materials are suitable for welding
- TIG inverter.
- Gas cylinder. The most frequently pure argon gas is used as shielding gas for argon-arc TIG welding of stainless steel.
- Burner, which is a pistol-shaped device that is fixed to the gas hose. The electrode is inserted into the torch holder, which 3-4 mm protrudes beyond the body of the torch. Gas is fed through a hose to the nozzle at the end of the tool. Buttons for gas and current are available on the handle. Burners usually correspond to a particular TIG machine, but there are also universal Chinese burners, which fit to Chinese-made units on sale.
- Tungsten electrode (WL-15, WL-20 etc.). They differ in size and composition. The choice of electrode diameter depends on the thickness of the material to be welded (Tables 1 and 2). 1). International electrode brands and recommendations for their selection can be found on our website at.
- welding filler rod (BRIMA ER-308L, BARS ER-308LSi, Lincoln Electric T 308LSi, ESAB OK Tigrod 385 d2,0 and others) is a rod of metal identical to welded material. The thickness of the rod must correspond to the thickness of the workpiece.
|Metal thickness, mm||Electrode diameter, mm|
|5 or more||6|
What models of TIG inverter are best suited for welding stainless steel
Tiberis offers an extended range of TIG machines for welding stainless steel with argon gas. The models differ in the type of voltage used.
- If you need an argon arc inverter for line voltage of 220 V, then from inexpensive models in the budget price range, we recommend such units as MARS TIG 160 SH, Svarog PRO TIG 200 P DSP, ESAB Buddy Tig 160, provide an effective welding in a compact size and light weight. Among premium models such inverter EWM Picotig 200, EWM Tetrix 200, KEMPPI MinarcTIG EVO 200, KEMPPI MinarcTIG EVO 200MLP, which are characterized by intuitive operation, multi-functionality, high welding results and considerable turning time.
- If you’re looking for a machine that operates at voltage of 380V, look for budget models Svarog TIG 250 (R22), FOXWELD FoxTIG 3000DC Pulse, and installations that can be used in professional welding: EWM Tetrix 270, as well as KEMPPI MinarcTig 250MLP, the machine is compatible with all the optional remote control units of this manufacturer: manual R11F, manual R10, or remote control units RTC20 and RTC10.
Welding process features
Asking yourself how to weld stainless steel with argon, the first thing you should pay attention to the location of the burner. It should be placed so that the angle between the axis of the nozzle and the plane of the welded piece was about 75-80 °, and the burner was tilted to the side, which is opposite to the welding direction.
The welding process is important to perform without oscillatory motion of the electrode, otherwise the protection of the welded area can be violated, which will lead to oxidation of the weld metal.
The filler rod should be placed at an angle of 90° to the axis of the torch nozzle, with an angle of 15-20° between it and the surface of the welded product. The highest efficiency is achieved when the rod is placed on the surface of the metal to be welded. This minimizes dripping of filler metal into the weld pool.
The filler metal should be introduced into the bath evenly, moving the rod ahead of the arc. In the TIG method, the transverse motion of the filler is unacceptable, since it prevents the flow of shielding gas from the nozzle of the torch, and thus contributes to the ingress of air into the welding zone.
To reduce the consumption of the tungsten electrode, it is desirable not to turn off the shielding gas immediately after welding, but after 10-15 seconds. This excludes intensive oxidation of heated electrode and prolongs its working life.
Conclusion: Compliance with such nuances during the welding process directly affects the strength and quality of the weld.
Processing of stainless steel after argon-arc welding
Additional work is carried out to give the product a finished look. The surface of the weld is covered with an oxide film when working. This negatively affects the corrosion resistance of the metal. To avoid this, they treat the finished piece.
We hope that our article will contribute to the successful development of argon arc welding. Regular practice and patience will soon yield results.
You can buy a modern TIG welder from a proven manufacturer in our Tiberis online store, and if you have any further questions, please contact our specialists by calling the telephone numbers listed on the website.
How to weld stainless steel with your hands argon
Stainless steel is widely used in today’s food, chemical and petrochemical industries. Without stainless steel can not do any production of modern cookware, medical instruments or even bus stops. For this reason every self-respecting welder should know how to work with stainless steel.
There are different types of stainless steel welding, but most often argon and tungsten rods are used for welding stainless steel. Argon welding of stainless steel is very popular because it does not require expensive equipment.
Stainless steel is a metal with pronounced anticorrosive properties. For consumers, this is a definite plus, since the products made of stainless steel with proper care can last for many years. In addition, the composition of stainless steel contains chromium, titanium and nickel, through which the product acquires enhanced physical and mechanical properties.
Also for stainless steel is characterized by great appearance. The metal has a distinct luster, so that stainless steel products often do not even paint. This is the reason why welds should not only be strong, but also aesthetic. But this is only one of the requirements.
Because of the anti-corrosive properties that consumers love so much, many welders refuse to work with stainless steel. And all because these same properties significantly complicate the welding.
For welding stainless steel it is important to know and take these characteristics into account. We will talk about them below.
In this article we will try to reveal all the nuances, because we are convinced that to learn the basics of stainless steel welding it is not enough just to watch a couple of videos on the Internet.
How to weld stainless steel with argon
How is the welding of stainless steel with argon?? The entire process of technology will be covered in this publication!
Products made of stainless steel can be brazed both with soft solders, based on tin and lead, and with hard types of filler material, consisting of more refractory metals.
Soft solder, due to the fact that it is based on tin, is a fusible material, characterized by high ductility and fluidity in the molten state. What is especially important when performing soldering of stainless steel products, it has a good deoxidizing ability.
reliable connections both in production and at home can be obtained by soldering, performed with the use of hard solder. The metals from which they are made, melt at a higher temperature than tin, which allows to obtain with their help reliable and durable joints. Very often this type of materials are made on the basis of technical silver, which they can contain up to 30%.
One of the popular types of hard solder is the material brand HTS-528, which is successfully used for soldering not only stainless steel, but also copper, brass, bronze, nickel and other metals. Conveniently, it is available in the form of a rod, the surface of which is already covered with a layer of flux. When working with such solder in the industrial environment or at home, you should be aware that its melting point is 760 °.
Solder HTS-528, is a rod coated with red flux. In addition to stainless steel, suitable for cast iron and non-ferrous metals