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How to make an oven with a water circuit

Will deliver heat to all corners of the house Brick oven with a water loop: features, poryadovka

The water circuit is the water supply to the heating devices after heating in the furnace. This system is analogous to the solid fuel boiler, it is often used as an alternative method of heating.

In the case of a brick oven, the water loop complements the system of heating the building with wood.

This is advantageous in the event of a sudden shutdown of central gas heating in residential areas larger than 100 sq. м.

The main element that heats the water is a heat exchanger, it is also called a water jacket, coil, register, or even a boiler. Through it passes and heats the coolant water, which then enters the system of pipes and batteries, scattered throughout the house. Water moves along the heating elements on their own or under the influence of a pump. In the latter case, the heat is distributed more evenly.

Preparing for the building work

Before proceeding to masonry furnace with a water loop, you need to consult with experienced professionals. The optimal place for the installation of the structure is considered the central area of the house. The firebox should be located in the kitchen or other non-residential premises. The case on the contrary, it is important to place it inside the living room. Such a layout ensures efficient heating of several rooms at the same time.

The size of the furnace is influenced by the total area of the heated building. According to rough estimates, 1 m 2 stoves can heat about 35 m 2 houses. Based on this ratio, you can easily calculate the size of the heater in each case. There are situations when you buy registers for prefabricated structures. practical to buy a register first, and then under it to design a furnace of suitable size.

For the manufacture of registers, a pipe or steel sheet with a thickness of at least 3-5 mm is usually used. When using a thinner material, there is a real threat of burning. In such a case only a complete replacement of the product will help. It is mounted inside the fuel compartment, using the obligatory space between the walls. This precautionary measure compensates for thermal expansion and increases heat transfer. The gap facilitates the cleaning of the furnace, which is carried out on a regular basis.

Making a circuit for the steel stove

To make a heat exchanger samovarnogo type on the chimney, pick up 2 pipes: one with a diameter equal to the size of the stove pipe, and the second. 3-4 cm more (for example, 102 and 133 mm).

Self-made heat exchanger of samovar type

  • Determine the heat exchange area as described in the previous section, then cut both pipes to the calculated size.
  • Make two 20-30 mm holes in the jacket of the water jacket and weld threaded supply and return pipes to them.
  • Insert one pipe into the other and weld together, making crosspieces of steel strip. Use it to make the upper and lower covers for the homemade water circuit.
  • Check the unit for leaks and install it on the chimney as close to an oil or wood stove as possible. details about the construction shown in the video.

In contrast to the internal water circuits, economizer without problems connected to a variety of heating systems. with forced and natural circulation of the coolant. In the second case, it is important to perform the slope of the lines of 2 mm per 1 m. п. pipes and place an open expansion tank at the top point.


Furnace installation in the house with a water loop has many advantages, primarily due to the fact that the furnace not only acts as a heater, but also provides hot water. There are many types of water heater. About their features, advantages and methods of manufacture let’s talk further.

Long time water heaters. Working principle, advantages and disadvantages

Boiler steel or cast iron is used to make this kind of furnace. They work directly under the steam head. A long-burning water furnace is used both as the primary source of heating and in combination with other heating appliances.

There is a heat exchanger component inside the furnace. It is made of metal pipes or sheet metal. The second option is more popular, as it has a simplified treatment, and such a heat exchanger is easier to take care of.

A good register helps to achieve maximum heating in a short time of the stove. In addition, the water must be heated evenly and distributed throughout the system in the same way.

When steam flows through the system channel, it heats the water, thereby transferring its thermal energy to it. There is a variant of furnace arrangement, which have two or even three reservoirs. In this case, the level of efficiency is significantly improved. In the first tank water is heated, and in the second it is converted into steam. In order to heat the steam to the maximum, it is better if the boiler has its own room.

Furnaces that have a water circuit are characterized by such advantages:

High level of performance. Such a furnace provides heat even for rooms that are too large in size.

Affordable price. The price of the furnace with a water loop, compared to alternatives is low, and if you build such a furnace yourself, its purchase will be even cheaper.

Variety of fuels used to heat the room. Such a stove is able to work both on wood and coal, as well as on toe or sawdust.

Independent of mains power supply. The work is done with solid fuel. The room and water are heated without connecting to electricity.

Among the disadvantages of the furnace with a water circuit should be noted:

  • low coefficient of performance in comparison with other types of heating
  • the need for manual control. You need to constantly feed the system with fuel, clean it from its residues and manually control the whole process.

Furnaces with a water loop for the house. arrangement

If you use a classic version of the Russian stove without a water loop, the heat in the room is not distributed evenly: it is hotter near the stove, and cooler away from it. Installing a water heating circuit solves this problem and it turns out to distribute heat throughout the house.

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In addition, on such a stove is made not only to burn the house, but it is also possible to use it as a cooking and the use of hot water for their own needs.

The water circuit allows the furnace not only to heat the room during its furnace, but also to perform this process after a certain time after the completion of the furnace. Since the walls of the furnace are still hot for a long time.

The scope of use of furnaces with a water loop extends to heating private homes in rural areas, as well as for heating cottages, cottages and country houses. If the owners of the house choose this type of heating, then there is no need to buy expensive boilers. This heating option is one of the most economical.

With occasional residence in the building, it is better not to install such a heating system. Since in the winter time there is a risk of freezing of water in the system. Although it is possible to install a non-freezing liquid, which will solve this problem.

There are three main ways in which you can arrange a stove with a water loop:

  • Buying a ready-made metal stove, installing a system under it;
  • Construction of a brick stove with the involvement of specialists working in this industry;
  • Independent manufacturing of the stove with a water loop.

water circuit in the oven-водяной контур в печь, какой выбрать

The last two options involve self-made furnace boiler or heat exchanger, which is necessarily present in the water circuit.

Water furnace with their own hands: manufacturing technology

Before independent construction of a brick oven with a water loop, you should worry about the preparation of a heat exchanger or register, boiler or coil. The option of buying one of these elements is possible. For their independent production will require sheet iron or metal pipes.

Building a heat exchanger: register or boiler, requires special skills to work with welding tools. These are the main elements in the heating system with a water loop. Since they are connected to the system, in which the heat comes.

The minimum thickness of steel used in the manufacture of the heat exchanger is 3 mm. The main requirement for the heat exchanger is to ensure maximum heating of the heat carrier and the uniformity of its circulation in the system.

The heat exchangers based on sheet steel are simpler to manufacture and easier to use. Although their heating area is much smaller, unlike the option of pipes, they are easily cleaned from the products of fuel combustion.

Having a little experience in welding is quite realistic, according to the drawings, to make a heat exchanger with their own hands.

We suggest you read the recommendations for the manufacture of the heat exchanger, which is based on the use of sheet metal:

This type of heat exchanger is used in heating stoves.

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For its manufacture choose steel 0.5 cm thick.

You will also need a piece of pipe, 5x6x4 cm, a rectangular profile and pipes with a diameter of 4.5 cm.

They will perform the function of water supply and drainage.

The size of the heat exchanger is calculated taking into account the heating area and the size of the stove itself.

Water stoves for the house: masonry technology

There are two options for building a brick stove with a water circuit

  • building a new stove, the size of which is selected according to the size of the existing heat exchanger;
  • installing the heat exchanger in a previously built stove, in which case the type of heat exchanger to be built must be compatible with the existing stove.

Note that the distance between the stove and heat exchanger should be at least 4 cm, as otherwise the water in it will boil, leading to the destruction of the entire system.

If a circulation pump is used in the system, the distance is reduced to 25-30 mm. The thickness of the walls of the heat exchanger must be 0.3-0.5 cm. If the walls are smaller, they will burn through, but if more, the fuel consumption will increase.

To heat the heat exchanger effectively and to compensate for the thermal expansion of the steel, you must take care to have a gap of one centimeter, which will compensate for this expansion.

If the heat exchanger is made of pipes, the gap must be more than one centimeter. Thus, it will be possible to heat the heat register more qualitatively. In addition, it facilitates the maintenance and cleaning of the stove.

When arranging stoves that have a heating and cooking purpose, the function of removing the stove to clean the heat exchanger should be provided, since ash accumulates in the space between it and the stove, which negatively affects the performance of the entire system.

Brick masonry furnace is carried out by specialists with experience in this field. The implementation of these works by a person with no experience will lead to improper operation of the entire system. If you plan to perform the work without the involvement of specialists, you should use a special scheme, which indicates the correctness of the entire masonry.

Bricks are connected with each other using a solution of clay and sand. If there are certain irregularities or sharp transitions, you should use an angle grinder to cut a small plate of brick and install it in the place where there is a transition. Do not cover this area with clay, as it will still fall off during operation.

After the furnace is completely dry it is followed by the process of installing the heat exchanger in it. There are two options for carrying out these works.

The first method involves disassembly-free installation of the heat exchanger. It is allowed for heating and cooking stoves or kitchen stoves that have a tiled surface. In this case, the top cover is removed and the heat exchanger is installed in the stove. Make a hole in the wall of the firebox, in which the pipes going to the register section are located.

The second option involves disassembly of the upper section of the stove. This method is more widespread than the previous one. After the installation of the register the appearance of the furnace does not change in any way.

When carrying out this operation it is possible to change the number of channels and the system. For independent installation of the heat exchanger by the second method, you should draw a diagram showing the location of bricks when disassembling the furnace. Keep in mind that in the process of disassembly there is a risk of damaging the bricks, if this happens, worry about replacing them.

The technology of making a water stove with wood

We propose to consider the option of equipping a cast iron stove with a water loop. To make the water circuit of the stove you will need old radiators, which can be purchased at the construction market. Take care to clean, rinse and disassemble them before using them. To clean the radiators, it is better to give preference to hydrochloric acid.

After the cleaning of all sections follows the process of assembling them. During assembly, replace old cardboard gaskets. asbestos. The structure is assembled so as to place the outlet pipe at the top and the inlet. at the bottom.

This construction is placed in the chimney, next to the furnace. Water is heated with hot gases and thus heated not only the room in which the stove is installed, but also the entire house.

Before checking the performance of the system, you should pay attention to leaks and, if present, eliminate them. It is better to give preference to radiators made of cast iron. It is possible to make a water loop using steel pipes, but then they must be thick enough.

With the help of a water loop the fitting of any stove is done. Option of equipping and additional boiler installed in the chimney. Thus, the heating of water is much faster.

Another option for making a stove with water heating involves making a pyrolysis boiler that has two sections. This system has a higher efficiency factor, as the gases do not move through the system immediately to the chimney.

As strapping for the boiler use thick-walled pipes, through which the water circulates. Keep in mind, in order for the boiler to function properly, you should use as fuel wood, exclusively with low m moisture.

It is possible to arrange the system, through which moves not water, and steam. Such a system can also heat not only one room but also an entire house.

Recommendations for setting up a water-type fireplace stove

Water fireplace has the form of a metal firebox, with sealed walls of 4 to 6 mm. The heat exchanger is located inside the fireplace. Water is present in the main system, the average. 40 л. The water is heated thanks to the energy that appears as a result of the combustion of fuel.

The pipe system is connected to the heating system, and thus there is a hot water supply for the whole house. In addition, there are sensors in this system, which are responsible for regulating the temperature on the fireplace.

Among the advantages of modern stoves fireplaces with a water loop should be noted:

About the heat exchanger

When building a brick furnace with a water heating boiler with your own hands, you should consider many factors and calculate the project as a whole. Any type of materials and structures have their advantages and disadvantages.

There are several ways to install a register with water in the furnace:

Depending on the location, choose the material for the heat exchanger and its shape:

  • Copper. effective, thanks to the high thermal conductivity of metal, but because of the low melting point of copper, you need a constant circulation of water in the system;
  • Steel. for boilers are used heat-resistant steel with a wall thickness of 4-5 mm. For a long service life of steel structures, it is not recommended to drain the water from them.
  • Stainless steel. expensive, but the most suitable material for the boiler. The disadvantages include only the labor-intensive manufacturing.

When choosing the type of material and the location of installation of heat exchanger it is worth remembering that placing the water circuit in the hearth, in summer the whole system will be heated, to avoid this you will have to withdraw separate batteries to remove excess heat.

When installing the heat exchanger in the chimney, additional flaps are added to the design of the furnace, which do not heat the boiler during the summer operation of the furnace. It should be taken into account that the heat exchanger should be larger in volume than when it is built into the hearth. In addition, the boiler must not reduce the capacity of the flue ducts.

Calculation of power and size

For normal heating of the room it is necessary to correctly calculate the area of the register and its power. For a brick oven a rough calculation is sufficient, it is impossible to make a precise one, because of the many factors and variables.

From practice we know that for heating of 10 m2 of premise you need 1-1,5 kW of energy. From one square meter of the heat exchanger you can get 5-10 kW. To determine the capacity of the register more accurately, it is necessary to take into account:

  • Location of the coil in the furnace;
  • Type of fuel. wood, coal. When burning, wood gives less thermal energy.
  • The approximate temperature in the hearth and location of the heat exchanger;
  • The average temperature of the water in the entire circuit;
  • Heat transfer coefficient of the material from which the coil is made.

As the fuel burns, the heat exchanger capacity will decrease, so the calculated area of the coil is better to increase by 10-15%.

Satellite Heating System

Knowing the tenacity and perseverance of our craftsmen, we are not afraid to assume that there will be those who, organizing the furnace heating with a water circuit with their own hands, will install a damper, working in automatic mode. Such a flap, which closes the circuit in the absence of circulation, equipped with an emergency power system, pressure and temperature sensors and checks its operation via a satellite with an Internet connection. Anything is possible. You just need to understand one simple thing: there is an idea of people who want to save money, and there is a sober engineering calculation, in which all options are worked through, which can be developed system, sometimes, maybe, and futuristic, but, as practice shows, quite justified. To demonstrate more clearly what happens when installing heating furnaces with water loop with their own hands without firm calculations and reliance on reality, let us give one small example from life.

Pros and cons of heating with a water loop

Brick stoves with a water loop, used for heating a private home, have their own advantages and disadvantages. They need to be considered when choosing such a device for the bath or living space. Choose the right model should take into account the specific parameters of the house. The best option would be a long-burning stove, capable of working for 12-14 hours after a single fuel charge.

The list of advantages of the furnace with a water circuit includes:

  • Economical fuel consumption compared to systems operating on other energy sources;
  • The possibility of installing the furnace in conjunction with the rest of the heating system;
  • ability of the heater to successfully fit into any interior design project.

Of the disadvantages of such units note the need to heat the furnace in winter in the mode of uninterrupted heating. Otherwise, the rooms will not warm up to the optimum temperature.

The furnace with a water loop is not an automated system, so the fuel for heating in some models of units must be loaded manually.

Choosing the best option

In an already built house it would be difficult to put a solid brick stove. Water heating in this case, it is best to organize on the basis of a metal burzhuyka, which is allowed to put on a reinforced wooden floor without pouring the foundation.

However, if it is possible to make the foundation as it should be, then preference should be given to a more reliable brick stove construction.

Installation in the considered heating circuit circulating pump and / or hydraulic accumulator is a waste of money and zero additional benefit. They will only complicate the installation of the system. And in case of a power outage, these devices will cause problems at all. Whereas the variant of heating without them in case of problems in the electric network will continue to heat the house calmly.

What does the heating circuit look like

The design of the heating circuit may be different, as well as the place of its installation.

  • Self-made boiler is a welded metal container of steel 4-5 mm thick, built into the body of the furnace, with an inlet and outlet pipe. It can be placed either above the furnace, or in another place where the burning of wood significantly increases the temperature. The efficiency of such boilers is up to 80%.
  • Water jacket. a design similar to boilers, but placed on all sides of the furnace, the heating efficiency will be maximum. EFFICIENCY. 85%.
  • Heat exchanger, or register. Consists of metal, mostly steel pipes, welded into a system. They are reliable and durable, the price of steel compared to copper is low. Can be placed both in the furnace and in the chimney. Using pipes increases the efficiency of heating by increasing the area of contact between the hot air and the metal. The efficiency of the thermal circuit located in the furnace. up to 90%, but if it is located in the chimney, where the temperature is much lower, the efficiency is reduced and does not exceed 70%.



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