Laying the classic Swedish style stove
The dimensions of this oven are 102 x 88.5 cm in plan, height. 2.03 m, heating capacity. 3.2 kW. Accordingly, the heating area. up to 40 m² of a country house, insulated according to the climate in the area of residence.
Oven heater can be used for baking and heating the kitchen
Note. In the presented model there is no channel of summer passage of gases, so that it is more convenient to use the stove for cooking in the winter. The sectional view of the heater is shown in the picture below.
To fold a traditional Swede yourself, purchase the following materials:
- Ceramic bricks of standard sizes 250x120x65 mm. 553 pcs.;
- fireclay bricks SHA-8, working temperature. up to 1300 °C, size 230 x 114 x 65 mm. 33 pcs.;
- grate 30 x 20 cm;
- oven 45 x 25 x 29 cm;
- Doors: furnace door 21 x 25 cm, ash door 14 x 25 cm, revision door 14 x 14 cm (3 pcs.);
- hob two burners of cast iron 410 x 710 mm;
- Screens: smoke 25 x 13 cm, exhaust 13 x 13 cm;
- Equilateral angle 45 x 45 mm total length 6.5 м;
- steel strip 50 x 5 mm in length of 2 meters;
- 2 mm thick steel sheet. 1 m².
According to fire requirements from the side of the firebox on the floor is laid a sheet of roofing steel 70 x 50 cm. Building materials for the chimney and foundation are not included in the list.
When ready the stove. “Swedish” is laid out according to the presented rankings:
- Rows 1, 2. solid, on the third. the outlines of the ash-pan, the secondary chamber for the oven and vertical shafts. Fix 3 access doors and one ash door.
- The fourth tier. the continuation of masonry according to the drawing, the fifth covers the set doors. We begin to form the bottom of the firebox with fireclay bricks and put the grates, having previously made a recess in the stones with an angle grinder.
- Row 6. we lay the walls of the combustion chamber, mount the oven and the stoking door. Between the furnace and the oven compartment we make a ¼ thick partition of fireclay stone. We build the seventh horizon according to the scheme, on the eighth we block the bottom gas flue, the ninth tier covers the door of the main chamber.
- After the tenth row we mount the hob and the metal corner on the front side. At 11th the niche walls begin to form, horizons 12-16. continuation. Then we lay the supporting corners and brick overlap. a row To the left we leave an exhaust aperture above the niche in the size of half a brick.
- At the 18th floor we take the second end bracket and begin to build the walls of the drying chamber (rows 19-26). After 22 horizons cover stove 34 x 19 cm sheet on the 26th row put another corner of the overlap, top have a metal plate measuring 905 x 800 mm.
- Tiers 27-29 are solid, we leave one chimney aperture. Rows 30-31. forming the beginning of the pipe with an inner channel of 250 x 140 mm.
Further masonry work is performed with cement mortar, observing fire safety rules. That is, in a wooden ceiling is arranged furnace section a half brick thick (38 cm), on the roof. an indentation of 130 mm, as done in the diagram.
For the masonry order of a Swedish classic stove, see
Note. Hereinafter materials from the site “Heating stoves and fireplaces” of the Belorussian master Nikolai Zolotarev are used.
The design of a traditional oven
We will not describe the history of the Russian stove and its role in the village home. the topic is widely covered in fiction and technical literature. Let’s go straight to the point. let’s briefly analyze the traditional design shown below in the figure:
- The lower part of the building. the cairn. was built of stone or wood. cedar, larch. The walls of the base form a niche, the underbelly, where firewood was dried and domestic appliances were kept.
- The first arch arch vault and a large hearth of the furnace (the crucible) were built on top of the chimney. The under-and second arched vault was made with a slope towards the forecourt. the face of the structure.
- There was a damper above the crucible. The cavity between the second vault of the fuel keeper and the ceiling was filled with sand to increase the heat capacity.
- There was a special niche. a plug, which ended with the hoil (smokebox) and the chimney itself, before the mouth of the furnace. A horizontal shelf at the bottom of the opening. a post. had a semicircular window facing outward.
- On the side walls of the brick heater there were stoves. small niches for drying clothes and other things. The chimney was equipped with a damper and a flue pipe, located above the belfry.
Reference. A very detailed history of the evolution of the Russian classic stove is described in a popular book with the same name, the author. Gennady Fedotov, year of publication. 2003.
A true Russian stove is radically different from other heating structures made of brick in these ways:
- deep vaulted firebox, made with a slope forward;
- the chimney is located in the front. in the center or in the corner of the building;
- an indispensable attribute. the fireplace couch above the fuel chamber.
Now let’s consider the principle of operation of the stove, shown in the diagram:
- Wood is piled closer to the back of the crucible and kindled. The combustion air comes in through the outside window of the stave and through the mouth of the firebox and moves over the bottom of the chamber.
- The heat generated during combustion heats the body of the stove. the side walls, sand filling and the bed.
- Light products of combustion rise to the vault of the furnace. The slope does not allow the gases to leave the chamber at once. first they give up the heat to the slab, then they become heavier and are displaced by the new hot stream.
- After passing under the crucible, the products of combustion pass through the upper zone of the mouth, up into the smokebox and leave the stove through the chimney.
Note. There is no baking or cooking in the combustion process. When the stove is well heated, coals are first raked out of the furnace and then the food is loaded into metal pots (pots and pans) with the holding bar. The outlet is closed with a damper.
Brick heater with output to 2 rooms of a wooden house
Despite its many advantages, a Russian stove with a loggia is seldom built in the traditional version. Usable space in the modern interior is worth its weight in gold, and the classic heater takes up a lot of space, and poorly heats the lower zone of the room. For construction, it is better to consider projects of modernized designs, where this problem is solved.
Russian stove with a stove and a heating pad
When building a simple chimney, most of the heat produced by the stove is wasted. Hot gases and smoke go straight outdoors when they could be used to heat the house. In the case of the stove, the situation is improved because. к. Part of the heat goes to heat it up and stays in the room.
To increase the efficiency of heating, heating panels are built. By construction it is a brick wall, located above the furnace and the hob.
Its peculiarity. the channels laid inside for the exhaust of smoke. Thanks to their length, the red-hot gases on their way to the chimney transfer most of their heat to the walls of the panel and continue to warm the air in the house for a long time.
Important! Channels of the panel are necessarily equipped with dampers and provide a direct exit of smoke to the outside. This is of great importance in the summer, when additional heating of the house is not required and creates uncomfortable conditions during the use of the stove for cooking
The combustion chamber (furnace) is the main element of a traditional brick oven. It connects to a system of internal ducts and a chimney, through which hot gases and smoke escape to the outside. Often put ready-made cast-iron fireboxes with a blank door or fireplace with panoramic windows. This makes sense because it reduces the time and labor to lay out the hearth, significantly extends the service life, increases the efficiency and improves the appearance of the finished structure.
Russian stove with a brick fireplace
An ash drawer. it is located under the furnace and separated by a grate. Ash and ash are poured into it. Из названия понятно, что через этот отсек в очаг попадает воздух, обеспечивая тягу.
Oven and cooktop, fireplace chambers. additional elements of different shapes, sizes and materials. There may be a water tank and other useful additions for the economy, without impairing the functionality of the stove.
Cleaning channels with windows are designed to remove soot and soot from the chimney. If this is not done, the passages will eventually become blocked and the stove will not work at all.
Chimney ducts connect the furnace to the chimney and penetrate the entire body of the furnace. Have a complex configuration and length depending on the model of the unit. The air and gases moving through the channels give their heat to the brick, which heats the room. In a Russian stove there is only one chimney.
In this video you will learn how to make a brick stove with a fireplace:
The body of the furnace is everything else that is made of brick. The couch is also part of the body of the stove.
The location of the cot depends on tradition and the owner’s choice. The most comfortable option. at the level of an adult’s knees or slightly above. This design is easy for children to climb on.
In the old days the beds were placed directly under the ceiling, near the chimney. Such location keeps the maximum of heat, but without the ladder you can’t get there. There were also options in several tiers. for children and adults.
The location of the furnaces also differs in these furnaces. there can be only one chamber (under the main construction) or two. the main one and under the stove.
As for the location in the house, it is most logical to install the heating structure between the kitchen and the living room. This will allow to heat two rooms at the same time.
If you follow the advice of experienced masons and do everything strictly according to the scheme, you will be able to put up the brick oven with the stove yourself. Blueprints of the stove stove with their own hands called poryadovka.
Choosing the layout
Furnace with a fireplace is first of all a correctly chosen scheme, frame. It depends on it how effective, useful and safe such a heating device will be installed in the house.
The large spacious fireplace heats well and gives part of the heat into the room
The large open hearth has a partial heating function and is intended for cooking
Stoves with a stove and a cooktop can also be used for comfortable rest, drying berries, mushrooms, clothes, shoes.
Besides brick stoves with a firebox provide more effective and uniform heating of the rooms. The best heating units are those that are based on furnace chambers equipped with a long combustion function. Also long-burning furnaces are among the most efficient, economical, in terms of consumption of firewood and other solid fuels.
Bricks are used to start raising the stove walls. At the same stage, the boundaries of the ash pan and ducts to be used later for cleaning the heating structure are laid.
Mounting the bricks on this row allows you to fix the door of the cleaning compartment of the heating structure, as well as a similar element of the ash-pan chamber. Both parts are installed using a wire. It is screwed to the ears of the doors, and then mounted in the brick joints. To prevent the elements to be fastened from toppling over, they must be temporarily propped until they are finally fastened in the wall of the heating substructure.
Overlap the openings, which are the entrances to the inner channels, with bricks. The result is a hole of a certain size. The blocks are also used to close the inner hearth channel. The ceiling for it is made of them.
Installing the grate in the large furnace chamber. The inner walls of the firebox are made of bricks without mortar. While laying this row, the small firebox hatch is also mounted. It is installed above the bottom channel.
If the Russian stove with a stove suggests the presence of a water tank in its design, then at this stage it is installed. Forming of the firebox is continued by laying the fireclay bricks.
The grate in the small fire place is installed. A door for the large firebox is also installed. The right wall is reinforced with a strip of metal. It is reliably fixed thanks to the special hooks in its design.
At the same stage, the mortarless masonry of the rear wall of the large furnace compartment is made. In addition, the gaps between the bricks are created to increase the heat output. They are arranged on the outer wall on the inside of the large furnace.
During the installation of the bricks of these rows the door of the small furnace compartment is mounted. We also continue the formation of chimney ducts inside the heating structure.
Before we start preparing materials and tools, we prepare drawings with poryadovka. The drawings should reflect the number of bricks, fittings, dimensions.
Monolithic reinforced. the most common and simple.
Digging a foundation pit. The size of foundation is equal to the size of the furnace base, plus 15-20 cm.
We put the filtering pillow. Lay wet sand on the bottom of the excavation. Compact it until it does not sink in, periodically adding a new portion.
Put gravel and small pieces of broken bricks on the layer of sand and again a thin layer of sand, dampen and compact it. Then pour another layer of crushed stone about ten centimeters thick, ram it.
We cover the rubble with two sheets of waterproofing.
We establish the formwork. For this we put boards or plywood in the foundation pit. At the same time between the walls of the pit and the “box” leave a distance of 10 cm. Protect the boards with shoring and moisten them heavily, so the wood does not draw moisture from the mortar.
To lay the reinforcement, pour 4-5 cm of cement mortar into the formwork. While the cement sets, connect the metal bars with a wire strictly perpendicularly. The distance from the ends of the rods to the formwork 1-2 cm.
Mix the mortar of cement (1 part), sand (3 parts) and gravel (5 parts). Pour the mortar in layers of 20 cm. Each of them should be compacted, using vibropress or a hand tamping device.
When the mortar has set, we cover it with waterproofing (tarpaulin, Ruberoid, etc.).п.).
Important! Always check the horizontality of the mortar poured. Use the spirit level. If the foundation is not properly poured, the stove can warp or crack.
Preparing the materials
To build a classic oven we will need: about eighty buckets of cement, the corresponding amount of fine sand, clay, 1,700 bricks, a wood door with a half door and a valve (the hole inside is 26×24 cm).
Russian stove with your own hands
If you are building a house and want to give it the charm of a Russian hut, a stove with a fireplace is the best solution.
If you are building a house and want to give it the charm of a Russian hut, a stove with a fireplace is the best solution.
Structurally the stove consists of a firebox, niche for storing dishes (cold stove) and an adjoining stand for hot pots and pans (ridge), niche for storing firewood (oven/slab), a kind of oven for cooking and baking loaves (crucible), chimney, floorboards (loggia). The lower part of the crucible is called under and is built at an angle to make it easier to put heavy dishes inside. Above the pole there is a chimney and a chimney, which is always equipped with a gate. a woodpile.
In modern modified designs of Russian stoves such shortcomings have been eliminated as: uneven heating; high fuel consumption; the duration of heating the stove.
It is impossible to imagine the Russian stove without the stateroom. it seems too compact, modern and unusual. But the construction, on which Emelya moved, fully corresponds to the Russian idea of a classic country stove.
Today’s large and comfortable designs on which you can “warm your bones”, varied in both form and design. Here are some samples, which, if you want, you can make yourself:
Such a variety of design is dictated by the desire of owners to decorate the interior, to make it unique.
Brief description of the construction
Many people do not know how to properly build a Russian stove with a stovepipe, because they do not know the basic elements and details of masonry.
The main elements that must be present in every construction. In different regions the names of parts may differ (for example, podpechje. podpecek)
The crucible is the main, large chamber, which serves for both the stacking of firewood and baking of pies. The upper part of the crucible, the roof, is heated and transmits the heat to the stove.
In front of the crucible is a pole. a small compartment, where it is convenient to put pots and pans. This is also where the stacking of firewood on the spatula is manipulated. Sometimes under the stave there is a small niche called a podshestok.
The mouth is the opening leading into the crucible.
Under. is the important part of the crucible, its lower plane, slightly inclined towards the mouth. The smoothest polished surface of the oven.
The niche under the stove, which serves for drying logs, storing large utensils, grubs, shovels, brooms.
Peretrubie is a chamber between the crucible and the chimney, located above the pole.
Wood flap. a flap that closes the chimney after burning wood.
Benches. a large horizontal surface for resting or drying.
Samovarnik. a hole in which the samovar tube used to be inserted.
Often a smaller structure with a cast-iron hob is attached to a large stove. It can be stoked in the summer to cook dinner
If you want additional heating of the house or annexes (porches), in the body of the furnace is built hot water boiler and make wiring to the necessary rooms.
Pros and cons of the construction
Russian stove has a lot of advantages over modern heating devices, so it is still popular, especially in country houses, cottages.
- economy. if you build a complex design furnace, the efficiency reaches 70-80%;
- Low cost of materials and work of furnace workers;
- Some models are stoked not only with wood, but also other types of solid fuel;
- Multifunctionality. heating, cooking, recreation included;
- Requires attention once a day;
- Beneficial to the health of the dry heat from the bricks.
If the rules of construction are followed, safety is guaranteed.
A brick structure usually lasts at least 30 years. The constructions made by masters live much longer. 100 years and more without major repairs
Sauna stove with your own hands
But there are also disadvantages, because of which building owners refuse to install a stove. Fuel must be prepared in advance, dried and taken away. Modern electric and solid fuel boilers are more efficient and take up less space and do not require constant attention.
A Russian stove can be installed only in a detached private house; it is not suitable for heating apartment buildings, let alone multi-storey buildings.
Before you calculate and fold a Russian stove with a fireplace, you must determine its size and location. Get ready for the construction to take up a lot of space
The disadvantages include regular cleaning of the furnace from ash and soot.