How to cook a solution for laying a stove yourself
When going to fold the stove with your own hands, you need to think about the right materials for its construction. Many people know that the masonry needs fireproof brick. But there is little to purchase this material, you still need to choose the right and prepare a solution for laying a brick furnace.
The composition of the solution, on which you can put fireproof brick during the construction of the furnace, necessarily include clay. There are two ways to prepare a “correct” solution for laying a brick furnace:
- Purchase finished clay or finished mixture in a construction store;
- Prepare the mixture with your own hands, carefully observing the proportions.
How to make a solution for laying a brick furnace with your own hands? Starting with the preparation of clay. This council refers to areas where you can get clay yourself. If this is not possible, you will have to purchase it in the store.
There is clay. there will be a stove
As a rule, clay is almost everywhere. Especially often you can find good clay on the slopes of ravines or along the river banks. When laying underground communications in cities, you can also find clay. If a similar type of work is underway in the closest area, use this. Clay lies immediately under the upper layer of the earth. It is enough to dig the top layer to a depth of only 0.5 m. It is necessary to know that in various places the clay compositions different in their appearance and composition. There are fat and skinny clay. Using them in a solution for laying a furnace is possible only in a certain proportion.
Our certificate: there is no certain proportion for the stove solution. Clay ratio. sand. water is selected experimentally.
Fat or thin?
The use of a fat solution in the laying of the furnace with your own hands will lead to the fact that, drying, it will significantly decrease in volume and cracking will occur. A thin solution after drying will begin to crumble. In both cases, the penetration of carbon monoxide into the room is provided. Thus, the “correct” composition of the solution for laying a brick furnace directly depends on the fat content of clay.
Clay for the solution. determine the fat content
If you are not a professional stove that can determine the fat content of clay to the touch, you will be useful to determine its fat content:
- A small amount of clay is taken, a liter can will be enough, and is cleaned of large particles.
- Clay is divided into five equal parts. In the first part of the sand is not added. A quarter of sand is added to the second. In the third. half of the sand, in the fourth. a whole part, and in the fifth. one and a half parts.
- After that, each part is mixed with water until a plastic mass is formed. Clay should knead well, but not stick to the fingers.
- After that, balls are sculpted from all parts and crushed into small cakes. The cakes are left to dry. The most important thing is that you should know exactly what kind of sand in a cake.
- After the cakes are dry, you can easily determine the optimal clay proportions. sand. If the composition contains not enough sand, the cakes are cracking. If there is a lot of sand, there will not be formed cracks, but such a cake will crumble.
- The most normal ratio will be the composition in which the cake will be dense and without cracks, this should be the quality solution for the furnace.
- Prepare balls as in the first version.
- Two well.raised planks are taken, and a ball of clay solution is placed between them.
- After that, it is necessary to press on the upper plank.
- If the solution is fat, cracks form on the ball only by half of compression from the outer diameter.
- In the normal composition, cracking will occur when crushed by one third from the diameter.
- A ball of a skinny solution crumbles almost immediately after pressing.
Pure clay. successful work
To prepare a high.quality solution for the furnace, clay must be sift to remove large impurities. For this, a sieve with 3×3 mm cells is used. Why exactly such a size? As you know, when laying a brick furnace, the smaller the thickness of the seam, the better. The seam of 3 mm thick is considered optimal. Therefore, a larger sieve will leave larger particles that will interfere when laying brick. But the best option for cleaning clay with your own hands is the alluvial method. The solution obtained in this way does not have large extraneous particles, and masonry is performed much better and more pleasant. How to prepare such a solution for laying a furnace with your own hands? This is done as follows:
- The oblong capacity is taken. You can use the old children’s trough.
- The trough is installed with a slope of 5. 7º.
- Clay is poured into the upper part, and water is poured into the lower. The amount of clay and water should be such that they do not come into contact with each other.
- An ordinary cell or a small scoop is taken, and with its help it begins to encounter water on clay. This continues until the clay mixes with water.
- The clay received in this way is filtered into a separate container.
- The operation is repeated until the required amount of clay is obtained.
You can’t soak. you will not work
Dry purified clay before use must be soaked.
Clay with a thickness of 100. 200 mm is poured into the container, the surface is leveled and poured with water. It is necessary that the water level covers clay. Another layer is poured from above and is again poured with water. And in this way all the necessary clay is soaked. After a day, the clay should be well mixed with a shovel and, if necessary, adding water, leave for one more day.
Lime and cement mixtures for the furnace
This mixture for laying the furnace is widely used in the process of building with your own hands. It includes cement, sand and water. This composition is used in the manufacture of the foundation (especially in places with high humidity). Used in laying the chimney pipes above the roof of the building. This composition has the ability to harden in the air and in water. Grabbing begins to occur after 30 minutes, and complete drying after 12 hours. It is easy to cook the mixture for the furnace by mixing sand and cement in a proportion from 1: 1 to 1: 6. It should be used for one hour, in this case, the quality of the strength is maintained. You can purchase ready.made dry mixtures to perform the above work.
The lime composition is easy to manufacture, it is easy to cook it with your own hands. The quality of the prepared mixture depends on how lime is repaid. In the capacity for cooking, lime is poured with water, then we wait until it stops boiling (this passes the processing process). Do.it.yourself preparation includes several stages:
- Determine the required product volume, excess is not stored for a long time.
- We sift lime thoroughly. We take out all the pebbles, we should turn out a small fraction. We perform the work in rubber gloves (corrodes hands).
Attention: lime should be completely shallow. Do not allow large particles in the mixture. In the process of drying, she will begin to “shoot” and this will ruin all the work done.
- Mix the mixture with a trowel or drill with a nozzle to a state of thick sour cream. If the solution is too viscous, add dry masses.
- When plastering furnaces, you can add a little gypsum or cement, this will increase the fortress fortress. The mixture for stucco of the furnace is used the same.
- Ready.made mixtures for laying the furnace should be stirred during operation, otherwise they quickly freeze.
Dry mixtures for furnaces are used at all stages of work, from the initial stage to the facing of the furnace.
Removal of impurities
Since the composition of the stove solution must be sand, it must be thoroughly cleaned. First, river sand is sifted through a sieve with cells of 1.5 mm, after which it is washed. For washing sand, a holder with a piece of burden stretched on it with a slight sagging with a little sagging. Sand is filled into it, fixed the device on the stand and begin to wash the mixture with jets of water from the hose. Flushing is continued until clean water drains from below.
The clay used in a solution for masonry should also be cleared of additional inclusions. To do this, it also needs to be washed. First, the breed is crushed and laid out in the upper part of the long vessel. bath or trough. Tanks give a slope of 4-8º. Below the vessels are poured water so that it does not contact with clay. With the help of a scoop or shovels, the clay breed begins to gently wash. As a result, as the clay softens in the lower part of the container, a pasty mixture is formed, which is placed in another tank. Flushing is continued until a sufficient amount of material is gathering.
To prepare a solution for laying a stove from dry packaged clay, it must be soaked. To give the material the necessary consistency, the dry mixture is poured into a container of 10-20 cm height, and then poured with water to completely cover the clay. After 24 hours, the composition is mixed, if necessary, add more water and left in this state for another day. As soon as the entire mixture turns into a pasty mass, you can start work. clay is ready. In this way, a sufficient amount of material is obtained.
Ready.made mixtures for laying furnaces
In addition to solutions that are prepared independently, customers offer a large number of ready.made dry mixtures designed for laying furnaces. The compositions add plasticizers and additives that provide strength and elasticity, moisture and frost resistance, and other necessary qualities.
The market presents several ready.made mixtures for laying furnaces offered by various companies. They are popular:
- Borovichi SPO. the assortment is offered heat.resistant mixtures for the manufacture of furnaces and walls with intensive heating. The line contains plaster solutions and compositions for the manufacture of the foundation.
- Superfin tile. refractory mixtures intended for internal and external works. Optimal solution thickness when laying 3-4 mm. A dry mixture bag is enough for laying 90 pcs. brick.
- Terracott. Cauline sand and high grade clay are used in the manufacture. Terracotta mixtures after masonry hardening, are not afraid of direct exposure to fire. Layer thickness from 3 to 12 mm. It is recommended to use a terracotta refractory mixture for laying a furnace from red ceramic and chamotis brick.
- Stove.item. under the brand, a line of refractory mixtures for laying the furnace chamber, the manufacture of barbecue, fireplaces, etc. is produced under the brand.P. The assortment of the stove.shaped, offers for repair work, grouting.
- Parade of the Republic of Kazakhstan. the company produces dry and ready.made mixtures for laying furnaces designed for the construction and repair of any complexity. Seaming is carried out by the solution itself, the grout is not required.
- Universal HKM Wolfshoher Tonwerke. a chamotum mixture that is characterized by gray coloring and having a high adhesion strength. The prepared solution remains efficient for a week after preparation, provided that the container closes with the oilcloth. Universal HKM Wolfshoher Tonwerke. modern solutions that contain no sand, which reduces the risk of subsequent destruction of the masonry.
- The Makarovs stove house. in the assortment of the company solutions from white red and blue (Cambrian) clay. Products are distinguished by high quality and resistance to intensive heating, and acidic substances.
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The advantage of ready.made masonry mixtures in fast manufacture, right at the construction site. Disadvantage. high cost. 25 kg bag, will cost 550-2000
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A little about chamotte
Shamot is not a mineral, as they often think, but a heat.resistant refractory material. Shadow is obtained from high.clinomatic clay, zirconium compounds, grenade minerals, etc. by deep firing. Deep means that after the release of crystallization water from the raw material, the firing is not stopped until the sintering and ardcing of the mass begins. A clay low-burned shagot is on a chamotum brick for household furnaces, its moisture absorption is about 15-25%, in a mixture with high-quality clay. In this case, Shamot acts as a filler instead of sand, and chamotum brick is burned as red, only at elevated temperature, before sintering. High-burned shame with moisture absorption of 2-10% of roads and is used in industry.
The sha.shaped shame itself enters the sale in the form of an unfortunate mass. a chamotis measure (not to be confused with Mergel!). or in the form of ground.based chamotal brick fight. chamotis sand and crushed stone. All of them find application as fillers of refractory, but not always interchangeable: the chamotis mudtel is much worse for the binding. You need to be especially attentive when it comes to refractory concrete, for example. For a monolithic furnace described at the end: recipes need to be verified by several sources, and just what you need, and not “just some shame”.
Note: it is customary to start the names of complex masonry solutions with the strongest binder, although it can be very few in the solution. E.g., In the cement-license to 1 volumetric part of the cement may account for 9-16 parts of lime.
Clay solution: kneading technology
You need to start with the fact that the clay cleared of impurities should be left in water for about a day. Then you need to add a liquid to it a little, achieving the homogeneity of the mass. By consistency, a mixture for stoves and fireplaces should be like a thick sour cream. Having strained, you need to add sand to it until the furnace mixture becomes a traction. To give the solution strength, you can not do without cement and salt. The consumption number of these components is 700–750 g and 200 g per bucket, respectively.
The function of the solution in the design, its properties
Traditionally, there are several ways to build household furnaces. If you discard rarely today (for example, adobe or raw brick), then in a dry residue we have one familiar massive furnace made of red ceramic brick, erected on a clay-sand solution.
The masonry solution holds all the structural elements in place, seal it. Actually, a correctly calculated and erected furnace should not fall apart even if for some reason the entire solution from the seams disappears. So the solution in the structure plays the role precisely the sealant and some stabilizer, holding all the elements in the same order. Therefore, the solution must firmly fasten with brick and have a certain fraction of the strength. This is achieved by the selection of the composition of the solution by fat content.
The second important property of the masonry solution is fire resistance. He should not burn out or highlight some extraneous substances when heated. At the same time, it is required to withstand the temperature of about the same as the brick itself.
Another important point. When heated, any material expands. Some is subject to thermal deformations to a greater extent, some-in less. But absolutely everything is expanding. Simply put, KTR (the coefficient of thermal expansion) is characteristic of all materials, but each this parameter has its own.
The furnace works in a large temperature range, so it is important to consider the value of KTR and its difference in various materials. And sometimes somehow compensate. In brickwork, the difference in KTR cannot be compensated. Therefore, the KTR of the binding pantry and brick itself must match. Which is decided pretty simple. The main component of the solution is clay. exactly the same clay is formed and brick is formed. After firing, clay sins, changes its properties. But KTR remains the same.
The masonry of chamotis brick is carried out with a solution of refractory clay, and red brick. based on red. In the first case, the oscillator serves as a shaflower. ground flooded clay cherry. In the second. ordinary sand
Purchasing masonry refractory solutions in the finished form does not represent a problem. over, the volume of chamotis masonry in household furnaces is small. But with the preparation of a clay-sand mixture (when the mixture is designated, it is first customary to indicate a binder, and the second-a detacular) may arise problems. Now there are ready.made work on the basis of red clay on sale. But most stovers still prefer to prepare the solution on their own.
What are the deviations within the norm?
We’ll make a reservation right away, it is advisable not to make mistakes, but even if it happened, some of them can be corrected. A large amount of sand cannot be adjusted. with this component you need to be very careful. Previously, check in 1-2 in the way the state of the mass, so that later do not have to shift the individual rows.
Violation of quality or amount of clay is allowed. If it is chosen too greasy and the plaster gives even a fissure with the naked eye, they are covered with a solution of whitewashing and sand in several approaches as it diversen. This is usually done for a month, rubbing the seam 3-4 times.
How to prepare a solution for laying a furnace in a bathhouse
Before preparing a lime solution for laying the furnace, the lime dough must be filtered through a sieve, mix with a sandy grid in advance, then add a little water, without stopping mixing the mixture. Thus, the solution should be brought to the required density.
For 1 part of the lime dough, 2-3 parts of the sand will be needed. Freshly prepared lime solutions, unlike cement solutions, retain their properties for several days. For greater strength, it is recommended to add cement to the solution, and to reduce the time of solidification (for example, when plastering) it is best to add gypsum.
Lime solution is also distinguished by the degree of fat content. To determine it correctly, the finished solution must be mixed with a wooden spatula for several minutes, then look at the degree of adherence. The skinny solution does not stick to the shoulder blade, the greasy solution covers its surface with a thick layer, and normal lies with a thin layer or remains in places.
Lime solution of normal fat content is an ideal option for masonry. In order to change the degree of fat content of the solution, it is recommended to add the missing components to it. So, for example, to increase the fat content of a skinny solution, it is necessary to add a lime dough, and sand is used as an additive to reduce fat content.