How to build a stove correctly
In the vast majority of cases, construction begins with a foundation for the future heat source. The exception may be outdoor mini-stoves, which, because of their small weight, are sometimes placed directly on the concrete screed of the yard. All others, regardless of the location must be erected on a solid foundation. And it is not allowed that the foundation of the furnace is connected to the foundation of the house or arranged against it, you must leave a gap of at least 5 cm, or better. 10.
Important. Failure to meet this requirement can lead to the fact that after a year or two, the furnace can crack and even deviate from the vertical.
If the house has a good base in the form of cement screed, and the total weight of the furnace does not exceed 750 kg, then the foundation is not required, the masonry can start directly from the screed, after laying sheets of asbestos and roofing steel. Given in the previous section designs weigh more than 750 kg, and therefore they need to be built a solid foundation. There are two types of foundations for the stove: natural stone and reinforced concrete.
Regardless of the type of foundation, you must first dig a hole whose dimensions exceed the area of the oven by 10 cm on each side. The depth depends on the thickness of the top layer of black earth or other subsident soil, while the base of the foundation must rest on a denser layer. In the first case, the excavation is filled in with a buroth stone with dressing, using a mortar of such components:
All the voids between the stones are also filled with this mortar, and the upper part, which is 80 mm deep from the floor, is also leveled with it. Cast the concrete base with the formwork and reinforcement mesh, pre-pouring the bottom of the pit with 10 cm thick cushion of gravel.
Important. After the mortar or concrete hardens, it is necessary to lay a waterproofing barrier of two layers on top of the foundation.
Stove masonry according to the slab thickness of 35 mm. A few recommendations:
- After each row, check that the vertical and horizontal alignment is maintained with the plumb line and spirit level.
- The mortar on the brick can be applied with a trowel or by hand, allowing the stone to tap lightly after setting in place.
- Remove the remains of mortar from both sides of the wall, and wipe the inner wall with a wet rag to create a smoother surface. This is to ensure that the flue gas resistance is as low as possible.
- When installing fittings and water tanks it is important to make sure that there are no gaps between the masonry and the metal surface, the joints must be carefully filled with mortar, otherwise the oven will start to smoke.
- When you have finished building, allow the mortar to dry for 2 days before attempting to heat the stove with a small quantity of firewood.
How to fold a small stove at home, detailed on
How to build a brick oven with your own hands
What is a brick stove in the country house? This makes it possible to heat the house all winter without using gas or electricity. In addition, the feeling of coziness that comes from the furnace is difficult to confuse with anything else. There’s nothing better than leaning against its hot wall at the end of the day, enjoying the warmth.
Modern construction technology allows you to put the stove together so that a good fire is enough to last you till morning. In addition, a properly designed structure retains internal heat for 1012 hours.
If to keep fire in the stove a little bit, it is possible to heat it 24 hours a day with the minimum consumption of wood. In addition, it is not necessary to put wood in the furnace. You can use a special charcoal. But this requires a special way of making the stove. Using refractory stone that can withstand high temperatures.
It is also worth noting that furnaces can have many modifications. For example, the design can be folded so that the stove is also attached to the fireplace. It won’t take up much space, but it will give you even more warmth and comfort in your home. In addition, one chimney is quite enough to draw the smoke from the two furnaces.
How to build the simplest stove from bricks?
First, you need to decide what you want to get from the future stove. If you only need to heat rooms, and for cooking you use bottled gas or electricity, then choose the option without a stove and oven. Those who like soft healing heat, choose the variant with a cot.
For regular heating of large amounts of food and food for pets the simplest stove with a cooking surface is just right.
We will look at three examples of stoves with a step by step guide on their masonry:
Let’s say at once that you can not expect a high heat emission from a simple construction, devoid of gas turnovers. For this reason, such furnaces are put in garages and other small rooms with an area not exceeding 16 m2.
We will consider this variant to give the beginners a simple lesson in practical masonry.
You do not need a strong foundation for such a stove. Poured a layer of coarse rubble in 15-20 cm, pouring it with cement mortar and leveling the surface, in a couple of days you can begin masonry.
The oven dimensions in the layout: width of 2 bricks (51 sm), depth of 2,5 bricks (64 sm). As there is no ash-pan door in the furnace, the holes for the air inlet are drilled directly in the furnace door.
The layout of such a construction is not complicated. The main condition during the work is to observe the joints so that the upper brick covers the joint between the two lower ones.
On the eighth row, the firebox is made narrower, using for this half and “three quarters” of a whole brick. Exit from the furnace in this way is the cross section of one brick (125×250 mm).
The next row (ninth) is laid in the same way as the seventh, using a whole brick.
Then put the brick layer flush with the inner edge of the lowermost row. The new tier is laid flat, using two whole bricks and four “three-quarter bricks”. In this way the flue duct is again made narrower in order to retain the gases and increase the heat dissipation.
In the next tier the stones are put on edge. A brick is put in the middle of the chimney. In this way, the stove is lifted by five more rows (one tier on the rib and a brick in the middle, the other tier flat).
The other four tiers are laid flat. With the last two rows of masonry, the flue duct is bored down to the size of 12×12 cm (half-brick). At this level, a smoke damper is placed in the sauna heater. A steel chimney is inserted on top of it.
Laying a brick oven properly: a guide to action
Brick stoves are effective and versatile. They can be installed in houses, bathhouses or even in summer houses, creating a comfortable and unique atmosphere. If you. the future owner of a country house or bathhouse, then for sure sooner or later you will think about how to lay a stove from bricks yourself.
Preparation of mortar for stove masonry
Unlike an ordinary wall, the brick stove with its own hands is built not on cement, but on clay-sand mortar. Mortar compositions for fireclay and ceramic bricks are very different.
The mortar for fireclay bricks is prepared on the basis of white kaolin or fireclay marl. Minerals are characterized by high fire resistance and can withstand temperatures above 1500 degrees. Dry masonry mix for preparation of refractory masonry mortar is usually purchased in retail chains.
Mortar for ceramic bricks is prepared on the basis of ordinary clay, which can be found in your area. Clay for stoves is also available in many building supermarkets.
Making a mortar for a brick oven with your own hands
For 100 pcs. The bricks will require about 40 kg of clay. The proportions of clay and sand are determined by test kneading. This is done as follows:
- Soak the clay in cold water for 24 hours.
- The mixture is divided into 5 parts and in each part add, respectively, a quarter, half, three quarters or equal weight part of the sand.
- All the samples obtained are kneaded again until completely homogeneous and allowed to stand for 3-4 hours to remove the excess moisture.
- Roll them into sausages 1-1.5 cm thick and wrap them around any round object 5 cm in diameter.
- In cases where cracks have formed on the sample of more than 2 mm. the mortar is not good.
- If the cracks are up to 2 mm deep. The mortar is suitable for those parts of the furnace where the temperature of heating does not exceed 300 degrees.
- If the surface of the sample is not cracked or covered with a fine mesh. such mortar is quite suitable for making a stove with your own hands.
Since the cost of sand is much lower than the cost of good stove clay, the essence of the tests comes down to determining the maximum possible proportion of filler in the mortar.
Do not be afraid to ask for advice
Experienced bakers are much more accurate in determining the right consistency of the solution, simply by kneading it in their hands. Therefore, if possible, we recommend asking for advice.
First place the bricks of the first row without mortar, taking into account the seam according to the sequence. Having determined the position of the corner bricks, put them on the mortar, using a level to check the level. Lightly tap the projecting bricks with a mallet. Achieving evenness, fill the perimeter of the first row with bricks on mortar, controlling the masonry level. Use a tape measure to check the size of the furnace in the plan and diagonal. The diagonals of the rectangle must be equal. If the diagonals are not equal, then set the corner bricks until they are equal, thus making the perimeter sides parallel. After that we lay bricks on mortar in the middle of the first row.
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After laying the first row, put the corner bricks of the second row, controlling the verticality of the corners with a level or plumb. Similarly to the first row we lay out first the perimeter and then the middle of the second row, according to the sequence. Having lined the second row, we hammer in the corners in the joint between the first and second row of nails 80-100mm long.
Then lower the plumb line alternately to all corners of the second row and mark on the ceiling the points from which it is omitted plumb line.
Then at these points we hammer the same nails, tie a kapron cord to the appropriate nails and pull it. We check the plumb line verticality. If there are deviations, they can be eliminated by bending the top nails. Thus the outline of the furnace in space is obtained. Masonry subsequent rows are conducted, checking the verticality of corners on the cords, which significantly reduces the time required to control.
The subsequent rows are placed similarly to the first two, each row referring to the poryadovka. While laying clean the inside and outside surfaces of the furnace from the excess of mortar with a trowel. After laying every 4-5 rows, wipe the chimney walls with a wet rag.
The thickness of the masonry joint should be as thin as possible. Thick joints cause mortar to break and make the masonry weak. The mortar should fill the joint tightly, squeezing out of it. During masonry work observe the rule of bricks dressing. Each vertical joint should overlap the brick of the next upper row. Usually such a joint is in the middle of the brick above. This, however, is not always possible. In some places we have to lay bricks so that the overlap is less than half the brick length. In any case it should be not less than a quarter of the brick length.
It is not recommended to lay the shares of bricks with the embossed or cut side inside the chimney. The disturbed surface is weakened and can be destroyed by high temperatures.
It is better to build the furnace furnace furnace from fireclay bricks.к. It can withstand higher temperatures. Tying the joints of the masonry of fireclay and stove bricks is not desirable because of the different coefficients of linear expansion. So fireclay bricks are either fully laid out in a row, or make lining the furnace on the rib. Leave at least 5 mm gap between the liner and the fireclay brick.
Installation of the cleaning and ash door
Before installation of the door check the tightness of the leaf to the frame, free rotation of the leaf in the hinges, absence of warping, the possibility of locking the closing and the presence of holes for mounting in the masonry. Any defects detected are corrected before installation or the door is replaced.
How to build a brick oven / outdoor kitchen build / Part 4- Brick Oven Floor Installation
Into the holes of the doors we insert a 50-60 cm long tying wire, double it and twist it.
Apply mortar to the brickwork where the door is to be installed. We install the door, check the verticality and horizontality and fix it with bricks. Then we put the ends of the wire in the joints of the masonry.
When installing firing appliances, we must remember that cast iron and brick do not expand in the same way when heated. This especially affects the behavior of appliances installed in high temperature areas. If they are firmly embedded into the furnace masonry, when heated, the cast iron will tear the masonry. Therefore the fire grate, firebox hatch and stove must be installed with clearances. Place the fire grate without mortar, with a gap of at least 5 mm on all sides. It must be freely removable for replacement in case of burnout or breakage.
Installing the firebox hatch
The firebox hatch must be installed in the same way as the asbestos firebox door, but it must be asbestos-covered in order to fill the temperature gap. We check the verticality and horizontality of the door and fix it with bricks and planking.
If the furnace is used intensively, the wire may burn off. To prevent this, the upper part of the door can be secured with a clammer. The bracket is made of a 25×2 steel strip.0 mm. The ears must protrude beyond the frame of the door on 100-120 mm. Fasten the clamp to the door with rivets or bolts and nuts.
The door is bridged by hinging half a brick on each side
For an opening of more than 250 mm overlap is performed wedge lintel.
Starting with the row, on which the board will be installed, lay the board without mortar. Lay the board on top and mark its location. Then choose a groove in the brick, taking into account the temperature gap of 5 mm on all sides of the slab. Lay the brick on the mortar. Fill the groove with mortar, put an asbestos cord around the perimeter of the board, lower the board into place and settle it with a mallet, making sure it is level.
The oven is also wrapped with asbestos around the perimeter and the width of half a brick. The side of the oven that faces the furnace, is laid with bricks on the rib, and on top it is plastered with a layer of mortar 25-30 mm to prevent the walls of the oven from burning.
In masonry furnaces, it is often necessary to cover various furnace openings, fireboxes, and chambers of all kinds, using lintels of simple and complex shapes. The overlap in the wall is called an arch, and the overlap, which is arranged between the walls. vault. The number of bricks in the arch and rows in the vault should be odd. The middle odd brick is the lock brick.
Every lintel starts with a heel, which is done according to a template. As the height of the arch or vault may vary, so does the angle of the heel. You cannot use the same shape of foot for all arches and vaults.
These pictures show the installation of the lintel and the masonry arched ceiling of the barbecue fireplace.
And the following photos show the masonry vault for covering the firewood niche.
They say that it is better to see once than read 100 times, so especially for you I have prepared a video guide “Stoves with their own hands,” which shows all the nuances of masonry brick oven in video format.
Features and order of masonry brick stove
Brick stove masonry can be done with their own hands, even without much experience in such works. It is enough to know only in general terms how a brick stove is arranged and how it should be laid out. The following will offer one of the most common and simple options for masonry brick stove.
Heating stove with a hob without facing.
Basic types of brick ovens Brick ovens are laid in different ways. Accordingly, there are several types of these units, namely:
- heating stove is used to heat one room or the whole house, if its area is small;
- cooking brick stove, it is preferred to put those who want to use this unit for cooking, drying berries, mushrooms and fruits, preparing feed for animals;
- The heating and cooking stove is a universal solution that combines both heating and cooking functions.
Modern home furnaces, properly built of special bricks, effectively produce heat, do not smoke, are fireproof, create comfort and a cozy atmosphere in the house.
Before you put your own brick oven, be sure to familiarize yourself with the features of its device, because it is quite time-consuming and complex activity, but, despite the opinion of many professionals that it is possible only for experienced craftsmen, to perform this work is possible and beginner master. It is important only to know how to properly lay a brick oven, and clearly follow these instructions. First of all, you need to choose the right material.
Features of the choice of material for masonry brick oven
1 example of furnace masonry for a country house.
For the construction of a brick oven, you can not use only one type of material, t.к. For structural solutions, one material is used, while the other one is used for cladding. As a rule, it is a combination of natural and artificial stone materials.
Natural materials that can be found in nature include:
But the choice of artificial materials for the construction of the bath is much more diverse:
Boulders and boulders are irregular shaped stones of various colors. They look very beautiful when masonry home fireplaces. They are laid both on the inside and outside of the stove. There are also uses for a variety of small stones, with which the middle of the structure is filled.
Boulder stone has a layered structure and is found as slabs or lumps. As a rule, this material is carefully processed until it takes the right shape. Heavy or light local rock boulders can be made from sandstone or limestone.
For reliability, you must choose only high-quality and durable materials that will not gradually crumble and crumble.
Brick is the traditional material used for masonry stoves and fireplaces. It is highly resistant to fire and holds heat very well. Red brick, which most homeowners find most attractive, is a product of ceramics made from a fusible clay of medium plasticity. The optimum density for masonry is 150 kgf/cm². This density is excellent for home wood burning stoves. To prevent shrinkage of the material under the influence of fire and the weight of the building, clay with high sand content is used.
The traditional red color of the brick is due to the high percentage of iron oxide in the clay after firing. Clay is also used to make ceramic pipes used in the construction of stoves. Bottom bricks are used for the bases of the stoves at home. Thus, it does not have pronounced seams and is smooth enough, so that if you use a brick oven for cooking, on its surface will be easy to move various dishes.
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The quality of the bricks determines the durability and the quality of the furnace itself. Therefore, only high quality bricks can be used for its construction. To find out how good the material is, it is simple enough, it should be a characteristic pink color and make a clear sound when you hit it with a hammer. In case the brick has a purple tint, it means that it is overburned. If the brick is orange in color, it is unburned. Neither the first nor the second option is not suitable for laying a brick stove.
We build the stove only with high-strength bricks. It is desirable that they have no chips and cracks, were smooth. Ideally, bricks of the same size should be chosen. But if you are unlucky and the bricks are faulty, do not use them for laying the furnace and chimney.
Installing a brick oven requires a proper foundation. As a rule, the foundation is a pit of 1 m deep with a sand cushion 11 cm thick. Concrete grout is poured on top of the excavation. The foundation must be set at a distance of at least 250 mm from the inner wall of the house.
Prepare the materials and tools necessary for masonry brickwork. You will need:
- Mooring brackets (made of galvanized sheet metal with cord and steel bar with snap).
- Sharp sledgehammer.
- Rectangular sledgehammer.
- Combination trowel.
- Templates for aperture marking.
- Wooden and metal tamping block.
- Pick hammer.
- Templates for masonry ducts.
- Expansion joints for concave and convex joints.
- Plumb line.
- Mortar shovel.
- Folding m.
- Corner piece.
- A tape measure.
- Red clay.
- Red brick.
- Aspirator door.
- Firebox hatch.
- Fire grate.
- Flue cleaning door.
- Cast iron latches.
- Cast iron plate.
- Steel Corners.
- Aluminum corners.
- Steel strips.
Dimensions and quantity of materials may vary depending on your stove design.
The basic principles of masonry brick ovens
Design and drawings.
How to build a stove with your own hands? There are basic types of designs:
- Efficiency can reach 80 percent.
- Keeps heat for a very long time, in some cases up to two days.
- Furnace on all sides surrounds the fire and reduces the fire hazard level of construction.
- Big size.
- Lots of weight.
- Long heating time.
- Daily heating is obligatory after the break.
- Has the most complicated design of all possible types of furnaces.
Russian oven is suitable as a permanent source of heat, will fully replace and even surpass the stove, can even serve as a bed, but such a stove has a huge size, and its installation must be justified.
- Simple masonry
- Takes up relatively little space, as it has an elongated shape.
- Quickly heats up.
- Relatively light in weight.
- Allows for cooking.
- Does not need to be heated regularly to maintain performance.
It turns out that the oven “Dutch” is not suitable as the main source of heat and will not be able to heat a large room. But such a stove is convenient for small rooms and occasional use.
The normal rectangular stove is a medium-sized version that is suitable for standard heating of a not very large room.
- Allows for cooking.
- High efficiency.
- Rapid heating.
- “Saves fuel.
- Relatively small in size.
- There are modern options with an oven, a hob, a place to dry clothes.
Furnace “Swedish” is suitable as the main source of heat in the room, can completely replace the stove and has many design options, but it is difficult to assemble.
A stove with a fireplace.
A stove with a fireplace is suitable for both home decoration and purposeful use as a heater.
There are a total of three varieties of brick-type stoves for heating, which you need to be aware of when choosing a design:
Cooking stove with a water boiler. This design has a cast-iron stove, with which you can cook food. Stoves are mostly small in size and have proven to be excellent in country houses. Of course, the stove also has the functions of heating the house. The stove can be easily made by yourself.
Heating and cooking stove. This unique stove can heat large areas. In the structural design of the masonry provides:
Ducted Dutch oven. Such an interesting name the construction received because of the channel sequence. It is easy to make, and in the process of masonry provides any structural element. However, the maximum heat output is not more than 40%, and home heating is unlikely to be effective.
Everyone decides for himself what kind of stove to build, depending on the conditions and capabilities.