How to choose a sunset controller
The circuit of the battery charge controller from the solar battery is built on the basis of the chip, which is the key element of the entire device as a whole. Chip is the main part of the controller, and the controller itself is a key element of the heliosystem. This device monitors the work of the entire device as a whole, and also leads the battery charging from solar panels.
With the maximum charge of the battery, the controller will adjust the current supply to it, reducing it to the required value of compensation for the self.discharge of the device. If the battery is completely discharged, then the controller will turn off any incoming load on the device.
The need for this device can be reduced to the following points:
- Charging the battery multi.stage;
- Adjustment of the battery on/disables when charging/discharge of the device;
- Connection of the battery with maximum charge;
- Connection of charging from photocells in automatic mode.
The battery charge controller for solar devices is important in that the performance of all its functions in good mode greatly increases the service life of the built.in battery.
Controller operation scheme
In the absence of sunlight on photocells of the structure, it is in sleeping mode. After the appearance of rays on the elements, the controller is still in sleep mode. It is turned on only if the accumulated energy from the sun reaches 10 in voltage in electric terms.
As soon as the voltage reaches such an indicator, the device will turn on and through the Scotti diode begins to supply current to the battery.
The battery charge process in this mode will continue until the voltage received by the controller will reach 14 in.
If this happens, then in the controller diagram for the solar battery 35 watts or any other, some changes will occur. The amplifier will open access to the Mosfet transistor, and the other two, weaker, will be closed.
Thus, the battery charge will stop. As soon as the voltage drops, the circuit will return to the initial position and the charging will continue. The time allotted for this operation to the controller is about 3 seconds.
This type of device is considered the simplest and cheapest. Its only and main task is to turn off the battery supply to the battery when reaching the maximum voltage to prevent overheating.
However, this type has a certain drawback, which consists in too early disconnection. After reaching the maximum current, it is necessary to maintain a charge process for a couple of hours, and this controller will immediately turn it off.
As a result of charging the battery will be in the region of 70% of the maximum. This negatively affects the battery.
This type is improved on/off. Modernization is that it has a built-in wide-pulse modulation system (ShIM). This function allowed the controller when reaching the maximum voltage not to turn off the flow of current, but to reduce its strength.
Because of this, the possibility of almost one hundred percent charging of the device appeared.
This type is considered the most advanced currently. The essence of his work is based on the fact that it is able to determine the exact value of the maximum voltage for this battery.
He continuously monitors current and tension in the system.
Due to the constant receipt of these parameters, the processor is able to maintain the most optimal current and voltage values, which allows you to create maximum power.
If we compare the MRRI and PWN controller, then the efficiency of the first is higher by about 20-35%.
- The first and very important point is an incoming tension. The maximum of this indicator should be higher than 20% of the idle of the idle of the solar battery.
- The second criterion is the nominal current. If the type of PWN is selected, then its rated current should be higher than the short.circuit current of the battery by about 10%. If MRRI is selected, then its main characteristic is power. This parameter should be larger than the voltage of the entire system multiplied by the rated current of the system. For calculations, voltage is taken with discharged batteries.
How to do it with your own hands
If there is no way to purchase a ready.made product, then it can be created with your own hands. But if you figure out how the solar battery charge controller works is quite simple, then it will be more difficult to create it. When creating, it should be understood that such a device will be worse than an analogue produced at the factory.
This is the simplest circuit of the solar battery controller, which will be easiest to create. The above example is suitable for creating a controller for charging a lead-acid battery with a voltage of 12 V and connecting a low-power solar battery.
If you replace nominal indicators on some key elements, then this scheme can also be used for more powerful systems with batteries. The essence of the work of such a home.made controller will be that at a voltage below than 11 in the load will be turned off, and at 12.5 V the battery will be supplied to the battery.
It is worth saying that a field transistor is used in a simple scheme instead of a protective diode. However, if there are some knowledge in electrical circuits, you can create a more advanced controller.
This scheme is considered advanced, since its creation is much more complicated. But the controller with such a device is quite capable of stable operation not only with the connection to the solar battery, but also to the wind generator.
Choosing a charge controller for solar panels
If you are familiar with the features of solar panels, namely, with the fact that they are current sources, which is precisely necessary for charging batteries, then the next question may arise.
Why do you need a charge controller for a solar battery? Indeed, it is enough to simply connect the solar battery with the battery, and in the presence of at least some light, and even better. The sun, from the solar battery, a charging current will go into the battery and without using the controller.
So why then buy a charge controller, what functions it performs and what is the difference between different types of controllers (MPPT, PWM, ON/OFF)? Let’s try to deal with it.
So what will happen if you do not use it at all? With a direct connection of the solar battery, a charging current will go to the battery and the voltage at the battery terminals will begin to gradually increase. Until it reaches the maximum charge voltage (which depends on the type of accumulator and its temperature), the direct connection will be equivalent to the presence of the controller of the PWM or On/OFF models, since in this mode these models simply connect the input and output.
When the maximum voltage is reached (about 14 volts), on/off the controller, which is the cheapest of all types, will simply turn off the solar battery from the battery and the charge will stop, although in reality the battery is not yet fully charged and for complete charging requires maintaining the maximum maximum voltage for several more hours. This problem is solved by the PWM controller, which using a wide-pulse transformation (PWM or, in English-PWM) lowers the voltage of the solar battery to the desired value and supports it.
If you do not use any controller, then you need to constantly monitor the voltmeter behind the charger and turn off the solar battery at the right time. And if you forget to turn it off, this will lead to a reloading, boiling electrolyte and reducing the service life of the batteries. However, if you disconnect it on time or use a simple on/off controller, the batteries will remain charged not completely (about 90%), and the regular undergraduate will eventually lead to a significant reduction in their service life.
There are two more important factors that should be taken into account when battery charge. High-quality charge controllers must take into account the temperature of the battery and have the temperature compensation of the charger, as well as have a choice of the type of battery (AGM, GEL, liquid-acid), since different types have different chargers (different voltages in the same modes). We also note that for temperature compensation, both a built.in temperature sensor and a remote. When using a remote temperature sensor, the accuracy of the controller is increased.
We summarize the intermediate result.
We examined the option of refusing the charge controller, as well as the use of two types of controllers. PWM and On/OFF and came to the conclusion that the best of these options is PWM type. At the same time, it is extremely important to have temperature compensation and the possibility of choosing the type of battery.
Why do you need a charge controller?
Why do you need a charge controller for a solar battery? After all, you can simply connect the solar battery with the battery, and in the presence of at least some light, and even better. The sun, from the solar battery, a charging current will go into the battery and without using the controller.
So why then buy a charge controller, what functions it performs and what is the difference between different types of controllers (MPPT, PWM)? Let’s try to deal with it.
So what will happen if you do not use it at all? With a direct connection of the solar battery, a charging current will go to the battery and the voltage at the battery terminals will begin to gradually increase. Until it reaches the maximum charge voltage (which depends on the type of battery and its temperature), the direct connection will be equivalent to the presence of the PWM controller, since in this mode these models simply connect the entrance and output.
When the limiting voltage of the battery is reached (about 14 volts), PWM controller, using a wide-pulse transformation (PWM or, in English-PWM), reduces the voltage of the solar battery to the desired value and supports it, thereby giving the accumulator to be reloaded.
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If you do not use any controller, then you need to constantly monitor the voltmeter behind the charger and turn off the solar battery at the right time. And if you forget to turn it off, this will lead to a reloading, boiling electrolyte and reducing the service life of the batteries. However, if you even disconnect it on time, the batteries will not be charged completely (by about 90%), and the regular non.proceeding will eventually lead to a significant reduction in their service life.
There are two more important factors that should be taken into account when battery charge. High.quality charge controllers must take into account the temperature of the battery and have the temperature compensation of the charger, as well as have a choice of the type of battery (AGM, GEL), since different types have different chargers (different voltages in the same modes). We also note that for temperature compensation, both a built.in temperature sensor and a remote. When using a remote temperature sensor, the accuracy of the controller is increased.
Which controller to choose for a solar battery
Based on the description above, you can understand that on/offf the controller is not suitable for long.term use. It can only be installed as a tester for the work of the entire system. We do not recommend using it, because the of the battery remember everything.
It is better to look at Shim or PWM or MPPT, they are more functional. Of course, the cost bites on them, but it’s worth it. Speaking for MPPT technology, it significantly prolongs the life of the battery, because the charge holds at the level of 93-97%, the PWM or PWM has 60-70%.
Any solar power plant is collected only for savings, so to overpay extra money to buy expensive components is bad. Interesting how to choose an inexpensive battery for solar electrostation.
We have collected for you the two most popular controllers for solar panels, which are universal and best in the price/qualities:
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- MPPT Tracer 2210RN Solar Charge Controller Regulator it costs 75, universal, recognizes day/night, there are quality certificates and excellent efficiency. 93%.
- Solar Controller 20a we allocated it due to the low price-only 20. It works using ShIM or PWM technology, you can manage using a computer. A simple and understandable integration is installed, it allows you to easily install all standard settings.
Is it possible to do without a controller for a solar battery
Sometimes, with the independent development of a solar electric station, the question arises, is it possible to do without a controller? To answer the question posed, it is necessary to recall the role of this device in the system of converting solar energy into electrical. If you formulate briefly, then the controller controls the battery charge process.
In the absence of this element of the control circuit, it is possible to boil electrolyte in the battery, which in turn will damage the battery, the cost of which significantly exceeds the cost of the controller. From this we conclude that the work of a solar electric station in automatic mode without a controller is unacceptable.
The only case when you can exclude a controller from the control scheme is not a long.term use of solar panels. In this case, a voltmeter is installed in the battery charging chain when the charge reaches peak values, the batteries are disabled in manual mode. After passing the peak loads, the charging chain, again in manual mode, is included in the work.
Currently, a large number of domestic and foreign companies are engaged in the manufacture of various electronic devices Therefore, there is no need to make such a complex electronic device yourself or even exclude it from the solar power control scheme.
Having received savings in the small, you can lose more when failing of the battery, moreover, the work in the automatic mode that the device, made by professionals, can save the owner time, and in the modern world, when everything flows quickly and happens, this is an important factor. However, everyone makes an individual choice for themselves, since he is a choice, there is always.
Search for the device
How to choose a charge controller for a solar battery for daily operation? First of all, decide what sources of alternative energy you will use. When using both solar panels and a wind generator simultaneously, you will like hybrid, which allows you to either use them simultaneously to ensure the charging of the battery, or alternately.
Choose the optimal operating voltage for your equipment. A lead-acid battery for 12 volts and 60 ampere hours from a car can be used as a drive. Find the controller for this voltage will be easiest due to their prevalence.
Unfortunately, most inverters requires a voltage of 24 volts and higher, which makes it impossible to use them with one battery. In this case, you will have to additionally buy a balancer to ensure uniform wear of two batteries and a more expensive controller operating with a higher voltage (or two controllers erected from independent current sources, for example, from different solar panels).
You can purchase a PWM controller for a solar battery. It is not very expensive, and a small difference in efficiency will practically not affect the modest economy. But thanks to high reliability, you buy it once and for all. PWM Controllers do not require configuration and additional maintenance during operation.
Comparison of MPPT and PWM controllers (ShIM)
In the solar and wind plants for the production of electric energy, two types of controllers are used, these are MRRTs, which were written above and PWM (PWM) Cotrollers.
PWM devices are cheaper devices, the principle of operation of which is based on the use of latitudinal module modulation. Devices of this type are divided into shunt and consistent.
In order to choose the most suitable for a particular system, you need to compare them to study the advantages and disadvantages of each type of such devices.
Advantages of devices of different types:
- The possibility of using in various systems that differ in the source of energy (solar, wind, combined systems)
- High efficiency.
- The creation of optimal working conditions for batteries allows you to extend their operation.
- The high voltage at the input allows you to reduce the section of cables and wires used to connect the elements of the system or increase the distance from the energy source to the controller.
- The use of devices of this type can increase the efficiency of the use of solar batteries, which is due to the ability to charge batteries with low illumination.
- PWM controllers.
- Low cost.
- Conservative models: allow the use of various energy sources simultaneously and create low heating during regulation;
- Shunt models: minor power losses during operation, weak electromagnetic interference and low voltage drop in keys.
Disadvantages of devices of different types:
- MRRT controllers.
- High price.
- complex technology, in accordance with analogues.
- PWM controllers.
- Conservative models: with full charge, the energy source is turned off, significant losses in successive keys, electromagnetic interference.
- Shunt models: significant heating during operation, the inability to use with other sources of energy, except for solar panels.
The main species
When choosing, it is worth proceeding from the power and performance of the system. If they are small, it will be enough PWM. it is available in price, simply and reliably in operation.
If the system with solar panels produces increased power, and the power of important devices depends on it, then it is worth giving preference to MRRI. Devices of this type are able to configure the most efficient operation of the equipment of the solar power plant.
How to do it with your own hands
If necessary, having an idea of electronic devices, knowing how to work a gun and the ability to make a printed circuit board for the installation of components, you can make a charge controller yourself. This will be the simplest type of controllers, which has a slight power and a small set of adjustments and settings.
The basis of the operation of such a device is the principle. when the voltage on the battery reaches the established level, the charging stops, and when the voltage is reduced at the batteries, charging is resumed.
A similar device can be assembled according to the following scheme:
The charge controller assembled according to this scheme will have the following characteristics:
- The voltage of the battery charge is adjustable, the nominal value is 13.8 V;
- The consumer disconnection is configured, the nominal value is 11 V;
- Turning on the load at voltage on the battery in 12.5 V.
The electronic components of the circuit can be replaced by analogues, without changing physical properties.