Electric flow water heaters
Such a story happened to my friend. On the eve of March 8, he decided to give his wife a gift. And I bought a flowing water heater so that my beloved was not tormented with basins and buckets for the time of disconnecting hot water. Called an electrician, he held a separate cord from the shield. Because the device is quite powerful. 5 kW. In general, showed enviable activity. The hour has come. The wife proudly retired to the bath, and he, happy, to the TV. look. And suddenly: from the bathroom. A terrible cry. The essence. Owing to some words and expressions, it was as follows ::
I ran to the service center. And what do you think they told him there? It turns out if the power of a flow water heater. 3.5 kW, then more than 3 liters per minute, hot water in any case you will not get. And to take a full.fledged hot shower, you need a power of 8 kW and above.
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Here is such a story. What to do? After all, running water heaters successfully sell today many companies, praise their merits, and they undoubtedly have. Firstly, with a stable water heater installed, no matter how many you hold the crane open, hot water will never end. Unlike storage water heaters, in which hot water in a container can end and after a while, it is quite possible (depending on the volume of the tank), cold water will flow. But this will never happen to a flowing water heater.
Secondly, compared to accumulative, running water heaters make small sizes. Since they do not need a tank for storing hot water.
Now about the shortcomings. As experts told me, their disadvantages can be attributed to a large one.time power consumed. And one more thing: if several points of the water intake at once, in other words, several cranes, the temperature of hot water will depend on how many points work simultaneously to the. I will explain. Suppose your flowing water heater for a kitchen crane and bathroom. So, if you decide to take a shower, and your wife. Wash the dishes, then you will have to blame already with cold water.
Having visited several companies selling water heaters, I realized: it is possible to get a lot of hot water using a running water heater only if its power is from 8 kW and above. So, this pleasure is available only in those houses where there is a three.phase electric network. Alas, in the houses of old buildings with 16 ampere plugs, a water heater with a capacity of more than 3.5 kW can’t simply be put. And in houses with electric stoves and new houses, where there are 40- or 32 ampere counters, an installation with a capacity of 6 kW is permissible.
What to do? The way out, it turns out, is. In order to have hot water in the only summer month when the preventive repair of central water supply is ongoing, stores offer a large selection of the so.called small running water heaters operating from the 220 V network with the scatter of power consumption from 1.5 to 8 kW.
So, small running electric heaters can be divided into two groups:
Pressure. Protopotal water heaters without any nozzles, they only have the entrance and output for water. They are installed in the riser and for the entire apartment. This is very convenient, since during the period of disconnecting hot water you can not only take a shower, but also use hot water from any crane in the apartment. Such a water heater turns on and turns off automatically, responding to the water current.
Underwear. Flot water heaters equipped with their own shower nozzle (it is included in the device) and operating only as a shower. This, undoubtedly, is convenient, say, in the country. But in the apartment, in my opinion, it is a little strange when two shower nozzles hang nearby in the bathroom. one shower from a conventional mixer, and a water heater sticks out nearby.
In addition, for example, what was told to me in one service center.
As we have already said, small running water heaters with a capacity of 3 to 6 kW can only be used in the summer. And that’s why. Recently, in winter, a man came to the service center. With a complaint that the water heater worked perfectly in the summer, and now, during the heating system accident, refuses to warm the water. Like, fix it:
He is popularly explained: in the summer the temperature of water, from the tap, was 15 ° C. Its small flowing water heater with a capacity of 3.5 kW (with dt. 25 °, giving 3 l/min) in the summer it is easy to take another 25 °. That is, 15 ° 25 ° = 40 ° C. quite suitable washing temperature. And in winter the water in the tap is colder, about 5 degrees. So: 5 ° 25 ° = 30 ° C. Under such water, of course, you will freeze. And the device itself has nothing to do with it, it works as usual, nothing has broken in it, just the climate is like that.
This is how I have commented on this situation in several companies. It turns out that small running water heaters were developed for the warm countries of Asia, Africa. And there are no such differences between winter and summer temperatures, and the water temperature in the tap is always about 15 °. It only needs it slightly.
Or another case. The client sometimes comes across an independent. Not consulting with specialists, he buys a non.discrete water heater. Not only that, connects it in a completely unacceptable way. I will explain. According to the instructions, before turning it on, you first need to open the cold water crane. But for some craftsmen do this: unscrew the shower on the water heater, which is sold complete with a unpaired water heater, and instead of it they put a regular crane. And without thinking twice, they connect the device to the water supply system. Simply put, now the role of the mixer is actually played by the water heater.
But the fact is that the tank of this water heater is not designed for such water pressure. As a result, the water heater fails. How figuratively I was outlined in the service center. Imagine! Meanwhile, in all instructions it is written in detail how the device should connect, so that then there are no problems.
Or is it a very exotic example. It is known that showers for a water heater must be cleaned from time to time. In a bathhouse, small running water heaters were used as a shower. Over time, the holes of the shower nozzle were clogged with pieces of lime scrap and dirt (our water, as you know, is not the best). As a result, the water heater is literally hot water: and in the end. overheated and: completely melted.
The thing is that showers for small running heaters have very narrow holes (compared to ordinary souls). And that’s why. A small flow water heater is able to heat up to the desired temperature not a very large amount of water. Therefore, for the stream to be stronger, in the shower nozzle and very small holes are provided. Naturally, such microdisters are clogged with a scum or garbage much faster.
The power of the flow water heater and the installation location of the device
Heaters are used when the effectiveness of the heat source is quite high and they must have sufficient thermal power to cover the temporary need for heat for preparing hot water. For example, to cook 0.1 l (0.1 kg) of water in 1 second (3 l/min) from a temperature of 10 ° C to a temperature of 40 ° C, it is required:
The power of the flow water heater should be selected according to the type and number of water collection points. As an approximate can be taken as a minimum power:
- from 3.5 kW. for the washbasin;
- from 5.5 kW. to the sink;
- from 5.5kW. in a shower cabin in the country;
- from 12 kW. for a shower cabin with standard surge;
- from 18 kW. to the bath.
Most often hot water is needed in the bathroom and in the kitchen. The running heaters are selected by the quantity and type of water supply points, namely:
- To heat hot water for a shower, it is enough to install a water heater with a capacity of 12 ÷ 15 kW;
- If a tropical shower and side nozzles are installed in the soul, you need a device of greater power and efficiency. This should be a device with a power of at least 24 kW or even more, for example, 27 kW;
- To supply hot water to the bath, you will need a water heater with a capacity of at least 18 kW.
Devices can pump hot water to several consumption points. However, the condition of the correct and comfortable operation of such an installation is to comply with a small distance between the water heater and the points of the water intake. a maximum of 6 meters. This note also applies to capacitive water heaters. The water pipes themselves must be properly isolated to limit heat loss.
If this condition is not respected, the waiting time for hot water will be too long. This group of devices includes models with a hydraulic drive and more technological. with electronic control.
Ariston water heating temperature
One of the most popular models of the accumulative type. Ariston. Therefore, we will consider in more detail this particular device. Ariston is not expensive, but high.quality electrical engineering. Water heaters are represented by consumers with a wide ruler. There is something to choose from. The most optimal volume of tank 50 liters. Good for a small family. Compact, convenient, does not occupy a lot of space.
In addition, the accumulative boilers of this brand have a whole list of advantages:
- Resistance to inner rust.
- The presence of a cleaning function. Viruses and bacteria will not accumulate inside thanks to this function. It is not necessary to remove a heavy device for manual cleaning.
- The surface of the tank is made of material that is easy to clean.
- The protective system from overheating is built.
This electric water heater heats the water to a temperature of 80 degrees.
Is it possible to save electricity using a small heating
This question is asked by many users of water heaters. If you set a constant temperature not higher than 60 degrees, will energy consumption decrease? Yes, it will decrease, but in all cases it is convenient? Isn’t it better to buy a device with low power and less consumption?
Another nuance: experts came to the conclusion that with constant heating of the heater to 80 degrees and above, the mixer suffers. precisely, his head. Especially if the element is not high.quality. Chinese, for example. It follows from this that it is not advisable to install the maximum temperature in water heaters. Otherwise you will have to often change the faucets.
The heating rate depends on the power of the heating element and the volume of the tank. For example, in a fifty liter tank, water will be heated within an hour. And in two hundred liter. within 8 hours. When choosing a water heater, this should be remembered.
The storage heaters have a convenient feature: heating the water once to a certain temperature, this regime will be constantly preserved. That is, you can set the desired temperature once and no longer bother.
Types of running water heaters
Closed water heater is always under pressure from the water supply network. Such models can be used to supply water for several points of water. When choosing a running closed.type water heater, ask what material the flask is made of, in which water is heated, what pressure it can withstand. So, for example, Stiebel Eltron uses flasks made exclusively from copper, which are not afraid of corrosion and are resistant to high pressure (designed for maximum pressure of 10 bar). Find out a possible temperature range in which the water heater is able to work. As a rule, this is a water temperature from 20 to 60 ºС. Some manufacturers offer water to 75-80 ºС, but not everyone needs such boiling water from under the tap and it can be unsafe.
Open water heater. Ignorant. The water supply in it is regulated by the tap at the entrance, and the heated flows freely (through the watering can or surge). Heating is turned on only after opening the water supply tap. Accordingly, devices of this type are connected only to one water supply point.
A curious variety of water heaters are models built into water taps. It can be both kitchen mixers with a water heating function and kitchen dispensers for boiling water (the latter are equipped with a small tank for water, which is placed under the countertop). Thanks to the dispensers, you can quickly and conveniently prepare hot drinks, such as coffee and tea, as well as, say, sterilize the bottles for baby food or wash off the restful foods from the dishes. Similar models were presented by high-class equipment manufacturers (Dornbracht Water Dispenser and Grohe Red systems), and mixers with the water heating function have now appeared in the assortment of Chinese manufacturers, they can be purchased in just 2-3 thousand.
Which water heater is better: flowing or cumulative
Decide which water heater to buy is a boiler (accumulative) or a proto.oper. in principle, is not difficult. First of all, the power consumption is the limiting factor: the accumulative maximum is 3-4 kW, it is pointless to take less than 7-8 kW less than 7-8 kW-they can provide heating only a very small volume of water. Not everyone has the opportunity to install such powerful equipment.
Secondly, you need to look, you will constantly use an electric heater in water or only periodically. With periodic use, especially in the summer, flowing water heaters are convenient, and and the open type (individual, which are installed next to the sink). For example, this is a great way to warm the water in the summer shower in the country to a comfortable temperature, if the sun has not managed this task. This is also a way to solve the problem in apartments when disconnecting hot water supply for repairs.
For constant and regular use, storage water heaters are more economical and convenient. Modern models “hold” the temperature for more than a day, so that the electricity consumption here will be, rather, less than the larger.
How to determine the necessary power of the device?
In order to determine the necessary energy intensity of the water heater, you need to decide in which mode it will be used. For example, for washing your hands, you need a stream of water about 2-4 liters per minute, but to take a bath, it will take 8-10 l/minute already. When choosing a heating device, it is necessary to proceed from the point with the highest water fence. So, for the full provision of an apartment or a small house with hot water, it is necessary to take a stream of water for at least 15-20 liters per minute for calculations.
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Also, when choosing the power of the heating device, it is necessary to take into account the difference in voltage levels in the Russian Federation. 220 V and in Europe. 230 V. It is because of this when connecting a heater with a declared capacity of 10 kW made in Europe, in our power grid the nominal indicator will be only 9.15 kilowatts.
If it is necessary to accurately calculate the power of the electric heater, then it is necessary to multiply the digital value of the flow rate of the liters per minute by the difference between the temperature of the required, and the temperature with which the water enters the heater. The result is divided into a constant coefficient of 14.3.
If you like a flowing water heater in the store, then look at the indicated value of its power. Based on this indicator, it is very simply possible to determine how much this device will produce about 25-30 degrees per minute of water. For example, a heating device with a capacity of 10 kW will supply a house with a water flow of 5 liters per minute. This is more than enough to wash your hands or wash.
You can also use the following list, which contains approximate, required for daily needs, power:
- 4–6 kW. for washing and washing dishes;
- 6-8 kW. for using a shower;
- 10–15 kW. for using a sink and shower at the same time;
- 15–20kW. for unlimited use in the apartment.
From the above values, we can conclude that for comfortable use the power of the flow water heater should be at least 8 kilowatts.
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Installation of devices with such capacities is possible only in old houses where the installation of electric stoves is provided or in the houses of modern construction. But electric heaters with a capacity of 12 kW are installed in individual buildings. Therefore, heating devices are for single.phase and three.phase networks, but single.phase electric heaters are usually not produced above 10 kW.
Several recommendations for operation
To reduce electricity consumption and minimize the flow of water, providing sufficient water pressure, in shower watering can of non.storage “proto.proto” they make very small holes. Over time, these holes are clogged due to scale, as well as low water quality.
To prevent the problem, it is recommended to install a special filter in front of the heater for additional cleaning from pollution during installation. The nozzle should be removed from time to time and treated with a solution from scale.
After this pollution is usually not difficult to remove with a hard brush or metal sponge.
The holes in the watering can be the shower of a flowing water heater is specially made small to reduce water consumption. Special filters will help to protect the device from pollution
When the specific model of the heater is selected, it is recommended to carefully study the manufacturer’s instructions carefully before the purchase. This will help to understand the features of the installation of the device, as well as evaluate the features of its operation, t.e. how convenient it will be to use the device after installation.
Small water heaters that are purchased for a summer residence, at the end of the season, it is recommended to rent and take it to a warm apartment.
In the spring, the heater is not difficult to connect again, but ensuring good enough storage conditions at an unheated cottage may be quite difficult.
After graduation in 2008. Engineering. The Faculty of Construction of St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University works with a degree in the “Engineer Engineer”. It has patents for inventions in the field of engineering plumbing equipment that are introduced into production. The author of the unique course of continuing qualifications of locksmiths. Invited Russian.speaking teacher of the International University “Ontario College Certificate” with a degree in engineering of plumbing equipment.
Types and connection to water supply and electricity
There are two main types of running electric heaters: pressure and non.pressure. The pressure are also called systemic and in the name often have the word system. They are connected to the gap of the water pipe, as a rule, have great power and can provide hot water with two or more water.clearance points.
Underwear or individual running water heaters are connected as ordinary household appliances. through a flexible hose or a water pipe outlet. They supply one point with heated water, have relatively small capacities (3-7 kW) and low cost. They exist in different forms:
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- in the form of a separate device (most often. a rectangular plastic box), which is fixed next to the sink or shower;
- nozzles on the crane;
- Elekopodogrev tap.
If you need to wait out a few weeks of disconnecting hot water supply, you can put an individual non.non.non.circuit electric water heater of any kind. If the supply of hot water requires constant, the installation of the pressure unit will be more rational.
Connection of the pressure water heater to the water supply
Pressure or system electric heaters are connected to the existing water supply system in pipe rupture. They crash using a tee, which is installed before the first branch. At the entrance of cold and hot water, cutting down ball valves are placed. They turn off the device if there is a centralized hot water supply. These taps are also needed so that if necessary, the device can be removed for repair or replacement.
Connection of a system electric flow water heater to the water supply
The quality of the tap water leaves much to be desired and it is better to cut the heater after the filter. If there is no filter at the entrance to the apartment, it is advisable to install it either immediately after the branch of the apartment, or already in front of the water heater.
In a private house, such an unit will work if there is a pumping station or a system assembled independently with a accumulator. It crashes after all filters, from the exit there is a wiring into consumers.
Connecting a non.pressure to water
Ignoring (individual) electric flow water heater is connected as a conventional household appliance. There should be a withdrawal from the water supply with the tap and thread at the end. Using a flexible hose in the braid, the device is connected to the water supply.
How to connect a non.water heater to the water supply
Nozzles for heating water. a few groups. They are mainly wound on the thread at the end of the excess (husak). To do this, the grid is first unscrewed, which is usually installed there.
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There were quite a few more time ago, but they differed in low efficiency. The nozzle itself has a solid size and you can’t fit it on a low tap. it interferes. In addition, cranes with electric heating water appeared on the market, which warm water better, have the ability to adjust temperatures and are more convenient to handle. They are installed in place of a conventional crane on a sink or sink. The only thing the installation is different is the need for electrical connection.
Any electric flow water heater. the device is powerful and requires a separate power line. As an exception, you can connect to a fishing line for a trimmer, which goes to an electric stove. a fishing line for a trimmer in parameters is suitable. Only in this case it is necessary to ensure that the plate and the flowing water heater do not include in operation at the same time, otherwise the machine will work on overload.
Connecting a flow electric vehicle is standard. from the phase of the zero, they start on a dual.pin RCD (be sure to break both the phase and zero), then the phase is also started on the machine and only after that is supplied to the consumer.
Connection of a flow water heater to electricity
The connection itself can be performed through a three.pin fork with a socket with a mandatory connection of grounding. You can also install a contact plate or connect the cable directly to the corresponding inputs of the heater.
Pull a fishing line for a power.wiring trimmer (mono.removal):
The machine is selected according to the maximum consumed current (is in technical characteristics). Take the nearest larger face value (if you take less unnecessary triggers. each time you switch to maximum power). RCDs take a step higher in face value, leakage current. 10 mA.
Read more about the selection of the defense machines here.
Features of choosing a gas water heater
Serious requirements in terms of safety are imposed on the operation of gas equipment. Gas speakers are source of direct open flame “eating” by main gas. It is important not only to choose a reliable, safe model of the heater, but also to make his work safe.
Coordination and compliance with norms
Only a licensed specialist can engage in the installation of a gas column. The room where the heater will stand should meet the requirements:
The presence of a ventilation inflow, an opening window or window.
Ceiling height from 2.2 m and above, the area of the room from 12 square meters.m. In practice, columns put in smaller rooms, provided that they are not insulated. That is, in the kitchen 8 square meters.m. You can put the device if there is no door.
For approval, you must contact Gorgaz. To draw up documents will require a passport for equipment, examination of the state of the chimney, those.Project and statement.
The equipment of the chimney
The gas column with an open combustion chamber is connected to a separate chimney with natural ventilation. The diverting pipe should be well fixed to the wall, without sagging. The material from which it is made is needed, the heat.resistant, capable of withstanding the effects of high temperatures. The parameters of the chimney are prescribed in the instructions for the heater, they are required. Elements of the chimney going beyond the room must be insulated.
Gas line connection
The rules for connecting the column to the highway are registered in SP 62.13330. The hose for connecting the heater with the gas pipe must be purchased by a special: rubber, reinforced with textile fiber, sulfonal or in a protective metal braid. The distance between the column and the place of the insert into the highway should not exceed 2 m. The work is carried out by a specialist.
A flowing heater will help to solve the problem with hot water in different situations: in case of accidents and prevention at the thermal power plants, if there is no other way to warm water in the house. If there is gas, then the gas column is the best option. It is inexpensive, the energy is also inexpensive. The electric heater is more universal. It is easier to install it, special resolution is not required. And the variety of models will allow you to choose the best option for any requirements.