Create a pyrolysis boiler for heating with our own hands
Heating houses with hard fuel is an urgent task for many people. Despite the fact that the gasification program has started many, many years ago, today it is considered unfulfilled. We will not understand the reasons, but today there are still no gas in many settlements. In an effort to warm their housing and not spend a fortune on this, people often create home.made heating equipment.
Having built a pyrolysis boiler with your own hands, you can count on high.quality heating and saving solid fuel.
- Features of pyrolysis heating;
- Structural features of pyrolysis boilers;
- Advantages and disadvantages of home.made equipment;
- Step.by.step assembly instructions.
It should be noted that making a pyrolysis boiler with your own hands is quite difficult. not only tools, but also knowledge in the field of metal processing are necessary for this.
Is it possible to get pyrolysis yourself
The design of a homemade pyrolysis boiler will be effective, only provided that the necessary conditions will be created for its operation. Fuel combustion inside the furnace should be carried out in compliance with the following features:
- Pyrolysis or gas generation is the process of producing and subsequent gas burning that appears when burning any solid fuel. The boiler should have a furnace chamber connecting to the channel with a firebox to burn gases.
- In the process of combustion, it is required to maintain a temperature of more than 600 ° C. In homemade boilers, a gas burning camera, they are usually placed under a furnace camera. To reduce heat loss.
During the burning of solid fuel, the surface is first oxidized, after which the flame appears. Gas generation or pyrolysis is a natural physical phenomenon.
Pyrolysis unit “Mini Reactor” 2019
The main task in the manufacture of a boiler with your own hands is the need to achieve maximum production of CO and it in a specially designated chamber.
Advantages and disadvantages of using a pyrolysis boiler
Pyrolysis boilers have the following advantages:
- lack of soot and caustic smoke, minimal secretion of combustion waste; This is one of the most environmentally friendly types of furnaces;
- For work, you can use any solid dry fuel, for example, sewing waste;
- High.quality fuel provides 12 hours of continuous operation of the boiler in one portion of fuel, that is, you will have to load firewood only twice a day;
- economical technology, utility costs are reduced by an average of 60% per year;
- The use of pyrolysis technology allows you to automate the control of the combustion process, which increases the safety of the furnace.
- Before the equipment pays off, you will have to invest considerable funds in the purchase of the boiler and its installation, but from the first days of work its efficiency will become noticeable;
- The fuel used should have a humidity of about 20%, otherwise the combustion will stop. Therefore, wet fuel needs to be dried;
- The boiler can go out at an insufficiently high temperature of the coolant. This problem is solved by installing a bypass pipe. This change complicates the design and reduces the efficiency of work.
- If an electric pump is used to injure air, then the operation of the boiler becomes dependent on the mains.
Brick pyrolysis boiler
In your house you can build a stove that will work on the principle of pyrolysis. She are mounted in one of the walls. The chimney is displayed on the roof, combustion products are displayed on natural thrust. Combustion chambers are made by steel, cast.iron grate, brick masonry case. In all other respects, the device is basically no different.
Brick pyrolysis boiler diagram
Around the perimeter, the structure is laid out with ceramic brick, internal rheatths are made of chamotis brick. It is important to put the masonry very well, so the performance of the furnace will depend on this.
We suggest watching a video on how to make a pyrolysis boiler with your own hands from a gas cylinder:
Long burning boilers laying firewood twice a day
This design will be liked by those who are at home or do not want to constantly load fuel. Prolonged combustion units are a type of solid fuel boiler, in which the combustion (smoldering) process occurs in the upper part of the fuel layer, respectively, the air is supplied from above. A built.in water circuit goes throughout the diameter of the case, so the coolant warms up well, regardless of how depth of burning occurs. Due to the combustion of only the upper layer, the duration of the boiler at one fire load is up to 30 hours, and some models that are suitable for any type of fuel can work on angle for almost a week! Most boilers have no energy.dependent equipment, moreover, they are relatively inexpensive, and they can be designed independently.
True, such designs have disadvantages, in particular, it is impossible to throw fuel during the burning of the boiler. Wet firewood for the firebox is not suitable, they should be well dried up to at least 20 % humidity and sawn into short bars. If heated by coal, then only high.quality, with low m toxins. Another significant minus is the limited power of the units. Most of the most popular models work as part of 40 kW.
We also mention pellet boilers. this is a type of solid fuel, with the only difference being that instead of firewood or coal, fuel granules from the wastewords of the woodworking industry are used. Most units are equipped with a special bunker, from where the fuel enters the combustion in automatic mode.
Preferred types of solid fuel for pyrokotls are fuel pellets (industrial models are designed for them) or firewood). A pyrolysis boiler with a high efficiency coal will work until all the volatiles come out, they are not so many in the stone coal, and there is almost no woody coal. Then simple combustion of carbon with stove efficiency will go. A highly effective boiler of prolonged combustion on coal should be built on a combined working cycle (on a combined course), in which the laying of the fuel smolders from the surface, the pyrolysis cycle is combined with burning and occurs directly on the fuel granules.
Note: the humidity of the air-dry wood can reach up to 50% air-dry, it means that it was dried in the open air under a canopy; Simply put. in the woodpile. Pellets in factory packaging during prolonged storage in an unheated room can pull up to 30% moisture. Both for Pyrokotla is too much. To bring the humidity of the next laying of fuel to indoor-dry (8-12%), using the residual heat of Borov. To do this, a home.made dryer for a duty (next) bookmark is equipped with it, see. rice. In terms of heating costs, it is immediately felt. In a pleasant direction.
Here it is necessary to say about pyrolysis oil. It is not at all fuel for pyrolysis boilers. Pyrolysis oil-a product of pure pyrolysis of woodworking waste: short-term, 5-30 s, heating in a sealed retort to about 800 degrees. In fact, this is a diluted tree tar.
The heating capacity of pyrolysis oil is high, about 40,000 kJ/kg, and ash content is small, about 0.2-0.3% costs cheaply. But byliveness. more than 0.5%, which is bad for liquid fuel. And sulfur more than 1%; For household fuel, this is generally unacceptable. In addition, the pyremlo has a rather strong acid reaction, t.e. Enjaches metals and lining. Therefore, it is burned only in industrial installations with the help of burners of a special design specifically for it. Here the replacement of fuel oil m100 gives up to 20% of savings. But. not at home in a household boiler.
The principle of action of pyrolysis boilers
Boilers of heating systems, where solid combustible materials are used as fuel, in addition to classics, also relate to pyrolysis. They are usually called gas generator boilers.
To better understand the principle of the work of a home pyrolysis boiler, it is logical to carefully consider the device of such a technique. Let’s start with the features of the furnace as the main part of the heating structure. In fact, the working area of the fuel chamber of pyrolysis boilers is divided into two separated chambers.
The design of the pyrolysis boiler in the context of: 1. loading chamber (passive), where the process of pyrolysis (incomplete combustion) proceeds; 2. gas combustion chamber (active) formed in the pyrolysis process
One of these cameras is loaded with hard fuel. firewood, pellets, briquettes, etc.P. There begins the primary process of combustion of solid fuel with limited air supply. In this state, fuel does not burn, but smolder. Gases released during slow burning enter another area of the chamber. active, where, with increased air supply, they intensively burn out.
Technically, a similar process of burning is implemented in a simple way. The sizes of the common chamber are simply separated by a grate and nozzle. The upper part of the camera is a passive firebox, the lower part of the camera is an active firebox. In this case, a constructive feature should be taken into account. the upper supply of air into the fuel chamber (upper dierce).
Actually, this differs the design of a gas generator boiler from a classic single.chamber development, where the lower feed is used.
The classic design of the air pump (often called. a fan, but technically it is an erroneous name), which is used in the pattern of a pyrolysis boiler. This is an important detail that ensures the effectiveness of the equipment
Technologically, for the construction of pyrolysis boilers, a characteristic moment is also the organization of forced traction. The design of a two.stage firebox has high aerodynamic resistance. Therefore, there is no way to do without installing the air pump.
Fire safety requirement
Non.compliance with fire safety rules when installing a boiler can lead to a fire, besides, this jeopardizes the health and life of your family.
Basic rules that need to be taken into account:
Water tube boiler test
- The boiler should be installed, should be in a specially designated place for this (boiler room);
- Under the base of the boiler, a brick platform or poured with concrete should be paved with;
- The distance between the boiler and the walls should not be less than 30 cm. The walls surrounding the boiler should be sheathed with metal sheets;
- Mandatory presence of a ventilation hole in the boiler room, for a constant influx of fresh air.
Important! The insulated chimney will prevent the formation on its condensate walls, which will increase the operational life of the pipe.
The principle of operation of a pyrolysis boiler:
DIY pyrolysis boiler is a difficult, but quite fulfilling task that will save a significant amount. The boiler made of high.quality metal will delight you with its warmth for many years.
Budget option for giving
The gas cylinder with its rounded shape and metal thickness is great for the manufacture of a pyrolysis boiler. It has an almost meter height, diameter 35 cm. These sizes are enough to create a heating device that can warm the room of medium area. The device is well burned in the most catchy types of fuel: chips and sawdust, raw firewood.
- Through the top or side door, loading is carried out and set fire;
- After the occurrence of a stable fire is covered with a piston (pancake) and a dense lid, in which there is a hole for the pipe;
- A limited amount of oxygen enters the furnace through the duct, which is why the process of pyrolysis begins;
- Gases rise along the walls of the boiler and burn in the upper part;
- The remaining products are removed through the chimney.
The cylinder is cut at the place where the rounding begins. From the side. a hole for the door, which should be closed very tightly. Therefore, it is usually used for cleaning, and fuel is loaded on top. The cut part is used for the cover:
- grind the incision to achieve tightness;
- make a hole 2-3 mm larger than the pipe of the duct connected to the pancake;
- scald with a steel strip.
The piston has a kind of design. Its blades are designed to swirl air flows above the smoldering fuel, and a round piece of metal hung on them prevents an open fire.
The chimney is made of pipes of different diameters: horizontal section. 120 mm, vertical. 180 mm. This design contributes to the creation of less active traction, inhibits gases allocation. A right angle also plays a role in slowing down the combustion process. This provides pyrolysis and prolonged operation of the boiler for 8-10 hours.
Below is a hole for a ashin with a door. Its design should provide a tight fit. You can use a cut piece of the wall wall, on which strip iron is welded around the perimeter. A grate, cooked from reinforcement, is installed slightly higher. The remains of fuel falls through it, which are then removed.
A lot of moisture condenses in the vertical pipe of the chimney, which is collected in its lower part. A ball valve is installed to remove water. It is convenient in that in the case of clogging, it easily cleaned with a piece of wire.