How to make a deck oven with your own hands: masonry instructions
To heat suburban homes more and more often began to resort to the brick stoves, abandoning a variety of electrical appliances and gas. The stove has always allowed you to quickly and permanently heat a living space with live heat.
The main thing in the furnace heating. the ability to initially accumulate heat and then gradually give it away. The most economical variant of brick furnaces is considered to be a hearth stove. It is more common all over the world.
It is called a deck oven if it has a surface where the fuel is put to burn it.
Podovaya stove is loved for its economy of use. Top burning in such a stove is uniform and will not use much fuel. During combustion, the fuel is oxidized by the air masses entering through the stove door, which provides the heat.
If you disassemble the structure of the hearth stove itself, there are three main parts of the furnace:
- The lowest tier is a chamber for loading heating material.
- The level above is responsible for combustion. In this area the highest temperature is fixed.
- The upper floor drains the gases after the combustion of wood and generates heat.
How to build a brick oven for a house with a hob with your own hands, using blueprints
Brick stoves equipped with a hob are versatile. they can heat the house, as well as heat water and cook food. Stove designs are different, from the simplest and compact, which can be folded with your own hands, to complex multi-functional, masonry which is better to trust an experienced stove builder. Those who are interested in how to fold a stove for the house, how to correctly fold a stove with their own hands, will help the article, where there is a scheme of the stove and drawings with rows.
Placement of the stove depends entirely on what exactly the owners expect from it. If it is installed in a small-sized house and will be used as a fireplace for friendly gatherings, you can use the first scheme. Such a stove is not a bad option for cooking barbecues on the grill or kebabs.
The second scheme for a solid-square house. In this case, the front side of the stove-fireplace goes into the living room, furnace walls are heated in both bedrooms, and the heat in the remaining rooms is kept by heat exchange.
The third scheme with a stove for heating and cooking a budget accommodation for the bachelor or a small family. The pluses of a warm stove and the possibility of placing a dryer in the hallway.
Important: It is worth to take care of the external insulation of the house, because it repeatedly increases the effectiveness of oven heating.
The nuances of finishing the stove
The walls of the stove, built of good bricks, and even decorated outside, not necessarily decorated: whitewash and plaster. If there are no chips and cracks on the masonry elements, during the construction observed verticals with horizontals, the heating structure will look great as it is.
On the furnace masonry of quality bricks is enough to perform grouting and carefully expand the seams. Without extra trim the heating and cooking structure looks better.
If there are still claims to the stove walls, there are defects on them, and masonry is not perfect, then finishing is very necessary. Before the production of finishing works, the outer surface is thoroughly swabbed, grouted with a piece of brick to improve adhesion, and then wait for its drying.
A dried out unit can be plastered using the clay-sand mortar used in masonry. To increase the strength of the composition is allowed to add 1% asbestos crumb. Heating variants of stoves are lined with tiles. this is the most reliable and gas-tight, but also the most labor-intensive type of finish.
Choosing the design of a brick oven
In a constructive abundance of brick furnaces is not easy to sort out. However, country property owners who want to equip their home with a brick unit should study this difficult issue. It is better to determine in advance the best option in terms of purpose and device, than to rebuild and modernize.
The division of brick stoves into types is made according to the following aspects:
Ideally, the perfect stove for you personally is selected according to the two or three most important criteria. Let’s break down what is significant in your opinion, which will be the basis for selecting the optimal brick unit.
Classification of stoves by purpose
According to the purpose of brick stoves for private households are divided into three groups:
- Heating. Brick structures with the sole responsibility of supplying heat to the rooms served. There can be no more than three heated rooms. And the walls of the stove should, if possible, serve as part of the interior partitions.
- Heating and cooking. Stoves equipped with both a heat generating surface and a hob. Brick stoves equipped only with a cast-iron hob also fall into this category.
- Special purpose. These are units designed for highly specialized tasks: baking loafs, preparing baths for treatments, drying laundry, or decorating rooms. This group includes stoves for garages, greenhouses, workshops.
Typical representatives of the first group are the Dutchman stoves, thin-walled stoves built in frames, tiled and Markov structures. Characteristic of the second group are Russian stoves, stoves with and without water circuit, as well as kitchen hearths.
In the third group an abundance of variations. However, if we take into account the structures made of bricks, the bath stoves are mostly predominant. Although they can also be metal, but with a brick lining. the lining of the firebox with refractory bricks.
Brick stoves are built from a material with high heat capacity and relatively low thermal conductivity. To put it simply, heating, cooking and bath stoves made of bricks are heated slower than those made of metal, but they keep warm much longer.
The low thermal conductivity of bricks is also advantageous in that despite the high temperature inside the furnace, reaching 500-700º, the outer surface of the brick structure is heated to only 95-100º. This excellent property meets both sanitary-hygienic requirements and safety requirements.
Division into types by gas flow
The design features of the furnaces are in complete agreement with the material properties. To increase their thermal capacity, they contain smoke channels and chambers through which the smoke circulates for some time before it leaves the stove through the chimney and exits into the atmosphere.
The movement of gases through the flue channels of the chimney is exemplified as follows:
- Flue gases of high temperature, rushing upward from the furnace, meet on their way the stove ceiling.
- Having encountered an obstacle, the gases flow into vertical and horizontal ducts and circulate along them, giving their warmth to the furnace walls.
- Flue gas that has transferred heat to the brick cools, descends to the outlet in the chimney and exits through it to the outside into the atmosphere.
Note that in furnaces with horizontally oriented channels the gas cools down faster, i.e.к. The gases pass more slowly along these channels than along the vertical ones. As a result, the heat is distributed unevenly over the heat-generating array, most often accumulated at the outlet of the furnace.
For this reason, masonry structures with vertical flues prevail in the stove industry. In them, the movement of gas is due to the natural laws of nature. They are connected to each other or to the channel coming from the furnace by short horizontal lintels.
The disadvantages of structures with vertical chimneys include a noticeable difference in heating of the part of the furnace located above the adjacent to the furnace channel, and the channel, combined with the chimney. In units with horizontal flue ducts, the bottom of the furnace is heated better, at the top they are cooler, which is better for sanitation standards.
If you decide how and what brick oven is better to build in the house, you need to consider that the smoke ideally moves vertically in an upward or downward direction, depending on the design. Only under the pressure of the gases accumulated above or under the overlap it flows into the next turn.
The presence in a design of channels too long, even if the area is dominated by vertically oriented ways, also not the best option. As a result of too long circulation, the gas cools down too much, which, just as in the case of horizontal turnovers, threatens uneven heating.
The disadvantages of uneven distribution are to some extent eliminated in bell furnaces. In this group of furnace designs, the traditional separate channels are combined into one chamber. the hood, located above the furnace.
Gas, flowing out of the furnace into the hood through a narrow opening, strikes the top overlap of the stove. Spreading from the impact in different directions, it goes down, from where it is pulled into the chimney under the action of natural draught. Scheme with the hood allows even distribution of heat, but this group also has disadvantages. the upper part gets hotter than the lower.
In terms of heat capacity cap structures are ahead of stoves with revolutions. Therefore, the first choose for the arrangement of large in area houses, the second for cottages and small buildings, for the heating of which do not need an overly productive unit.
Performance of a brick structure
The furnace must cover the heat loss of the rooms to be treated. Therefore, its capacity is directly related to the thermal performance of the rooms. They are found by adding the losses through the walls and floor with the ceiling, through door and window structures, through the ventilation system.
Calculation of heat loss will make it possible to determine the performance of the furnace, which should be slightly higher than the calculated value, but not more than 15%. In the case that the capacity of the brick unit will be more than the specified limit, you should pick up another design.
To facilitate the process of selecting the most suitable brick stove for masonry in a low-rise house, nomograms have been developed. The chart below, which simplifies the calculations for selecting a stove, is created for rooms with one exterior wall.
To use the presented nomogram is very simple. On the abscissa axis of this graph, you must plot the point #1 the size of the area of the room we are now dealing with heat loss. It should be pulled up to the intersection with the sloping line, this is point #2.
Then we draw a horizontal line to the left of point #2 to the point where it intersects the ordinate axis. This is point #3, the coefficient for exterior enclosures, denote it KF. The coefficient is multiplied by the average temperature in the region during the winter months (find it in “Building Climatology”).
For rooms with two exterior walls a different nomogram is developed. In addition to the room area, you will need information about the ceiling height in order to work with it.
To calculate the thermal performance of furnaces with closed surfaces facing the rooms, correction factors are applied. If one or two side surfaces are closed, the values obtained are multiplied by 0.75.
Furnace heating intervals
According to the frequency of fuel loading and the specifics of its processing, the furnaces are divided into two groups:
- Intermittent action. These are stoves, in which you need to load firewood and carry out the furnace several times a day. Because of the fact that the temperature in their furnaces sometimes reaches 1000º, they have thick walls. Usually they are made of ¾ or 1 brick.
- Continuous combustion. These furnaces are not designed to accumulate heat, so have thin walls, stacked in half-brick or ¼. In such stoves, the fuel loaded in the characteristic shaft furnace smolders for about a day, gradually releasing a small amount of heat.
Since continuous burning requires a regular supply of a large amount of oxygen, such structures have not really caught on in the countryside. However, they are “perfectly” cope with the heating of large private houses, industrial and commercial buildings with its own boiler room and mechanical supply ventilation.
Stoves of periodic combustion chosen, focusing on the priority number of heating processes per day. At medium latitudes, you should heat the stove twice in 24 hours.
The same in the northern regions, but the furnace in the north increases in duration. In the south of our country it is enough to heat once.
Geometric parameters of the unit
In terms of plan, most cooking hearths and stoves resemble a rectangle. And cooking stoves are mostly rectangular, and combined structures are square or rectangular.
In the Russian designs are usually supplemented with attached brick bunk beds, sleeping places on the top floor of the stove. To the stoves are added not only loggias, but also ledges and stoves for stuff drying, mushrooms preserving and other similar purposes.
Heating stoves can be rectangular, square and even round, the so-called Irish. Round varieties are built in a metal frame, which allows ¼ brick masonry. This ensures durability and increases heat transfer.
The thick-walled models include Russian stoves and heating units, stacked with a wall thickness of half to a whole brick. All constructions with the wall thickness up to ½ brick belong to the thin-walled class.
If you think how to cost-effectively build an efficient brick stove in the house, intended for permanent residence, it is better to prefer a rectangular or square heating and cooking design. The construction of a cooking hearth and a heating Dutchman is quite acceptable.
For a summer cottage is quite suitable miniature square or round thin-walled stove, if cooking is not expected. Among the combination options, one of the smaller varieties of Russian or Swedish stoves would be optimal.
We also recommend reading the article on how to build a mini Russian stove with your own hands. For details please follow this link.
Brick & Flame wood stove by Mr. Energy
Furnace made of brick: design rules, masonry features and drawings
What’s comfort in the home? It’s when it’s warm in winter and cool in summer, treading on flooring that’s pleasant to the touch and not icy, comfortable furniture and a cozy bed for you and your kids. Children fall asleep faster and sleep better when it is warm and comfortable to sleep on soft, children’s mattresses https://mebelsait.dp.ua/detskie-matrasy.
When you think about building your own home, you want to make it warm and cozy. Modern gas and electric boilers, converters, etc., can help heat your home.д., But they can not create a cozy atmosphere. That is why stove heating is actively used again.
The stove is a design highlight, and an economical heating device. It’s much easier to find an experienced stove builder for your furnace. But this long-forgotten craft has only just begun to gain popularity, and experienced stovesmen are very few.
Therefore, a reasonable question arises: “How to build a brick oven with your own hands?”.
Proper laying of the stove requires a lot of effort, and you will have to study a lot of instructions for masonry brick stoves.
Tools and materials
- Clay (for making mortar for masonry).
- Brick. Red refractory. Chamotte.
- Grate of grate.
- Corner steel.
- Roofing steel.
- Steam valve.
- Doors (for the cooking chamber, ash door, firebox).
- Cast iron tiles.
Furnace with their own hands from bricks: for heating the house, poryadovki scheme, step by step instructions
Brick kiln. Is a familiar unit for heating and cooking, the reliability and efficiency of which has been proven over time. In the absence of gasification at home and frequent power outages. Is an inexpensive way to cook and keep warm.
Furnace made of brick is a time-tested way to warm the room during the cold season and keep warm. It is suitable for heating a house for permanent residence, as well as for a cottage, which is visited once or twice a month. The design of the hob and oven allows the oven to combine the functions of heating and a heat source for cooking. Although today more and more remote settlements are being gasified, the problem of public availability of gas is still acute. Even in Moscow suburbs many garden associations and detached houses and farms are located far from gas mains.
Build a stove with your own hands out of bricks means at the lowest cost to solve the problem of heating in the house in a well-proven way. There are also situations where even the presence of gas on the site still does not make a brick stove a useless anachronism. I mean a bathhouse. Unlike the Finnish sauna, which can also be electric, the Russian bath must have a stove, and a brick oven is the traditional variant, which only the convinced, consistent adherents of the art of bathing recognize. Therefore, building a brick oven with their own hands comes in handy in the household, regardless of the conditions.
In addition, the real masters-furnacemakers over time is becoming less and less. Entrust the laying of the stove to an unproven specialist to risk not only the finances, but also the subsequent comfort and even fire safety. Is not it better in the shortage of self-trained temporarily re-trained in the stove? At least, you will have only yourself to blame for the mistakes you made.
The simplest stove: from improvised means, brick without mortar and on mortar
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A typical case when you need a simple stove. a dacha, giving additional income to the family budget. It is still cold in the spring, but you already need to go out to work. It’s still cold in the fall, but you still need to complete the seasonal work. Even if you go without an overnight stay, you need to cook and warm up a little. Make a fire? You will need a lot of fuel of sufficient quality. A campfire needs constant supervision and in general it is not always possible to make it by fire safety requirements. On a windy day the fire is of no use at all. the flame blows away. Will help the simplest stove from improvised materials. from it you can get the thermal efficiency of over 40%, while with fire it is one percent; at best 10-15%.
The second case when the simple furnace is necessary. temporary housing. Try., A lean-to or a hut, say, on the construction of a permanent house. To buy or make a steel stove by yourself? Not cheap, difficult, time-consuming. And warm steel furnaces harshly, the heat does not hold long. A simple brick stove that can be put up in a day or two, that doesn’t take a long time to dry before starting, and whose weight allows you to put it on an ordinary boardwalk without a foundation will come in handy here. Furnaces for such and similar cases are discussed in this article.
Note: a simple stove is heated black or its tin pipe chimney is led out of the window, because.к. The device of a flue according to all rules at once takes the stove out of the category of simple.