In locksmithing, a gas torch can be used to heat a metal workpiece so that it ends up being hardened enough. When welding certain metals, the places of future welds must be heated.
Types and classification
According to the purpose of the device is divided into professional and household.
- Burners for work connected with metal processing: for soldering, forging, welding.
- Devices for general construction, road works, roofing, wood burning works, cleaning off old paint.
- Process equipment for various purposes. For example, drying chambers, food industry tools.
From households, it is a gas stove, home stove nozzles, heating boilers, gas convectors.
Household devices can include. It is here most often there are burners by their own hands, not only made, but originally designed to perform specific tasks.
In the first type, the air (or oxygen) is captured by the supplied stream of gas. In the latter, the gas-air mixture is obtained in the pre-chamber.
The design of the gas burner
Hardware stores sell a large number of different models of gas burners for safe use. For example, a popular propane-fueled design can be of different modifications, even the size of an ordinary handle for jewelry. The advantage of factory models is a high degree of safety and product certification. But on the other hand, the design is not complicated, and to make such a tool at home is not very difficult. And since any product in the store is not cheap, especially the burner, beginners can and must learn to make it themselves.
The structure of the gas burner includes such elements:
The metal body is also equipped with a special casing, with which the fire in the burner will not be blown out. It has a metal handle. As an alternative, you can use other materials for it. Its dimensions should not exceed 100 centimeters. A wooden holder is placed on the handle, and then the hose is stretched. There is also a reducer with a valve. With it you can regulate the amount of gas to be burned, its length and, respectively, its flow. Similar design is equipped with a nozzle for gas ignition.
The gas burner is also called a propane burner. This means that it uses propane gas or propane-butane mixture as fuel. Such substance is filled with a special container or cylinder, which is located behind the burner.
Many people are interested in how to make a burner with their own hands. As you can see from the list, the design of the gas manual burner is not complicated, but on the contrary, even very simple for independent production. It does not have complicated elements, on which you need to spend a lot of money and time. For its production will require a little time and labor. And if you necessarily study all the schemes and drawings from professionals, as well as treat the work responsibly, then a convenient and safe device will come out.
In practice, a person who has never been engaged in the manufacture of similar designs, already in half an hour or an hour understands how to make a burner on their own, and does it.
If we talk about the application of such a burner, it can be different. For example, there is a burner for the boiler, gas-air construction, homemade construction of the burner for heating with household gas, etc. п. They even manage to make the burner out of a lighter. Such design may not be suitable for execution of the cutting torch function, but it may be used for certain purposes. There are also copper melting torches with an integrated nozzle.
Before igniting the torch, make sure all connections in the fixture are tight.
Next, the acetylene valve on the torch is opened and the oxygen is allowed to escape from the mixing chamber. When you hear the acetylene slowly come out, turn on the valve. This torch should be lit with a special tool.
How to make a 2372 °F gas burner from petrol. Burner on gasoline
The lighter should be placed in front of the nozzle so that its inner part touches the mouthpiece. The lighter creates sparks that will ignite the acetylene.
A small yellow flame forms in front of the mouthpiece. Use the gas valve to increase the length of the flame to about 250 mm. Make sure that the torch starts at the mouthpiece itself.
[note]If the flame “jumps” or comes off, you should reduce the gas supply.[/note]
Gently open the front oxygen valve. It is necessary to supply as much oxygen as is necessary for complete combustion of acetylene. When this is done, the color of the flame changes from yellow to blue. Then, increase the oxygen supply until the blue flame’s inner tongue becomes smaller and shrinks.
Continue to open the oxygen valve and increase the size of the torch until the inner flame is slightly longer than the thickness of the material being cut. If you hear a sniffling sound or notice that the blue flame has become unstable, reduce the oxygen supply. Then decrease the oxygen supply until the flame becomes stable and a clear cone is formed inside the flame.
The torch is brought up to the workpiece so that the inner flame touches the surface of the workpiece with its tip. The heating continues until a “puddle” of molten metal is formed at the point of contact. The tip of the flame should be held stationary at a distance of 10 mm from this “puddle.
Features of the gas burner
The main attractive “features” of this device are ease of use, absence of unpleasant odors and soot. Its compact size is another plus: the gas burner can be used anywhere. The usual design consists of several mandatory elements. These include:
The gas burner is called propane, but it can also work with a mixture of butane and propane. Gas is supplied from the cylinder by hose. Its delivery is regulated by the tap on it, but it is better to protect yourself as much as possible, therefore it is recommended to install reducing reducer. The shutoff valve, located behind the main valve, is used to open or shut off the gas supply. The flame intensity is adjusted by the working tap.
The gas hose through which the fuel is fed is connected to the nozzle, and there is a nipple at the end of it. Both elements are placed in a metal container: this is where the process of creating a combustible mixture. the enrichment of combustible gas with oxygen. takes place. It then enters the combustion chamber through the nozzle. To ensure the continuity of the combustion process, it is provided with holes.
Options for homemade burners
You and I already know that one of the main elements of the device is the valve. Powerful large-scale models must be equipped with valves of industrial type. You can buy these valves, or you can use the old ones, provided that the integrity of gas leakage is preserved.
For these dimensions use a standard 50-liter gas cylinder equipped with an angle valve and a reducer.
VK-74 valve burner
Cylinder and gas burner. The most important thing to remember is that this valve must only be used to control the flame. Stop the gas flow only at the cylinder itself. BK-74. valve of oxygen cylinder, to which knob with hose connected from cylinder is attached. A cap with a hole for the nozzle is also screwed to the valve, here you can use the element from a blowtorch or gas stove. The nozzle is welded to the cap from refractory steel on two wires.
In order to ensure that there is air in the combustion zone, the distance between the cap and nozzle must be no less than 15 mm. Nozzle position is determined by the wire holders so that the burner flame is exactly centered. How to light the flame: slowly open the valve by bringing a lit match to the nozzle. The flame is regulated by the valve.
Burner, converted from acetylene gas cutter
A homemade gas torch is perfectly made from an acetylene torch that has a broken oxygen faucet. In this case, the mixing chamber needs to be redesigned: everything must be removed from it to make it lighter, this also applies to the faucet and the oxygen barrel. The remaining hole needs to be soldered.
It is necessary to connect a reducer hose from a cylinder to the connector. For the convenience of work on the mixing chamber with the coupling nut set the tip at an angle of 45 °. To weld the nozzle to the flange, which then screwed on the threads of the tip. We make the nozzle in the same way as in the first version with the valve BK-74.
Mini gas burner
The drawing of the gas burner. This is called “fine” work. like jewelry. In this mode, it is more convenient to use a special mini device. This gas burner from hand-made materials is very easy to make. The main element in it is a needle for pumping balls. With this needle you need to work: first make a hole in the form of a kerf approximately in the middle or a little further. Some of the needles already have these holes, so let’s be happy and go on working.
Take another needle, this time from a syringe, bend it at a 45° angle. The end of the needle should be sharpened so that its sharp end becomes a right angle cut, and the needle looks like a narrow metal tube. Insert the syringe needle into the ball needle so that both ends of the needle come out of the larger needle. In this position, you need to solder the needles to each other. After that, connect the droppers to the base of the needles with the clamps to regulate them.
The clamps must be as close as possible to the needles and fastened together. they will function as valves, that is, they will regulate the flow of gas and atmospheric air. After connecting the gas source, your burner will be ready to use. For all its simplicity and compactness, you can get temperatures up to 1000 °. And do not forget the safety precautions, you need to work very carefully with this baby.
So, to build a gas burner with their own hands a) realistic; b) beneficial; c) useful. It is enough to decide what kind of work you plan to do, to determine the type and dimensions. The device of the gas burner from a physical point of view is simple, the main thing is to observe our advice on the main elements. We wish you fast decisions, quality valves and smooth flame.
How to make a mini soldering torch
The design features are that it is very easy to use, there are no traces of soot and repulsive odors during the application of the gas burner. This device is compact and can be used virtually anywhere. The main component of the burner is considered to be the interventilator. It is possible to buy a new part, but a used one, but in working condition, will do. The process of making a burner with their own hands begins with the handle, then the body and the nozzle are made.
In order to obtain a burner that is safe in operation and does not waste fuel, it is necessary to make a rule not to scale and adjust the schemes of the example.
To be fair, it is worth noting that not all gas appliances are calculated according to the laws of gas dynamics. But if the manufacturer changes the dimensions of details of construction, the Reynolds number of fuel (or suction air) will go beyond the limits specified in the original product. A burner with such “improvisation”, if you give an optimistic prognosis, will begin to smoke and will be “voracious”, and even dangerous in operation.
And one more important note concerning the peculiarities of burner manufacturing: it is not allowed to increase its output above 10 kW. And here is why
With burner efficiency of 95% (which is an excellent indicator for amateurish invention), with the power of 1 kW it takes 50 W to heat it up. It is theoretically possible to burn yourself on the construction, but there is no risk of explosion. And if the burner is built for 20 kW, 1 kW will be superfluous. Threshold manifestation is expressed by the fact that it is hot, or the design flares up. That is why those drawings of burner, which are oriented to 7-8 kW, should not be considered.
The main components in the manufacture of high-powered gas burners are industrial valves. They can be new, but for a home-made device, it is enough to use a second-hand one, if there is no gas leakage. They are designed to work in pair with 50-liter propane gas cylinder with corner valve and reducer.
Burner with valve BK-74
The design of this burner is shown in Fig. 1. Valve from VK-74 oxygen cylinder is used as a base.Handle-nut, made on a lathe, is installed to the outlet end and the knurled part of it is connected to the gas cylinder hose. On the part of the valve with a tapered thread K3/4˝. with which it is connected to a gas cylinder, the cap is screwed on and the hole is prepared with a thread for a nozzle. You can use a ready variant of a blowtorch or a gas stove.
The nozzle is made from a 1/4˝ piece of steel pipe, 100 mm long, and welded to the cap on two ∅5 mm pieces of wire. Between the cap and the nozzle should be left a distance of 15 mm for air flow into the combustion zone. Bending the wire holders adjusts the nozzle position to center the flame.
Sequence of actions to ignite the burner:
- Open the cylinder valve;
- Bring a lit match to the nozzle and slowly open the burner valve;
- Check ignition of gas;
- Adjust flame with burner valve
By the way! The highest flame temperature is at the end of the green-blue part of the flame.
Makeshift gas burner of this design has one drawback, associated with the location of the valve. Gas flow is directed in the opposite direction to the normal position. Gland seals are tested at constant gas pressure( watt).ч. when the valve is closed), so make sure that the gaskets are always tight.
Warning ! VK-74 valve should be used only when adjusting flame. Cut off the gas supply only on the cylinder
Burner converted from acetylene gas cutter
If you have an acetylene torch with a faulty oxygen valve, don’t rush to throw it away. This will also be useful for making a burner (Fig. 2).). A mini gas torch
Mini gas burners are more suitable for working with small parts. The mini torch is based on a needle for pumping balls. You need to make a kerf in it, just past the middle of the needle.Some needles already have a similar hole, which greatly speeds up the process. Next, you need to take a syringe needle, and bend it about 45 degrees in the middle.
The sharpened end of the syringe needle is best sharpened to be straight. After that, it should be inserted into the ball needle so that one end of it comes out through the hole, and the other protrudes from the large needle by a few mm. The resulting mini construction should be fixed by soldering. After that, the bases of the two needles should be connected to the droppers. Clamps. drip regulators should be moved as close as possible to the needles. In the resulting torch, they will act as gas and air regulators. They also need to be bonded together, and this is best done with a heat gun. It remains only to connect source of compressed gas to the ready device, the torch is ready for use. Such a homemade gas burner can heat objects up to 1,000 degrees. Work with it should be careful, observing safety.
Gas torch for metal: varieties
Gas torches are divided into types according to different parameters. The main ones are as follows:
- by the variety of combustible gas:
- propane-butane and t. п.
- For cutting under water;
- For cutting thick material;
- For cutting holes;
Currently, the most popular gas torches are the universal type. They are distinguished by the following positive qualities they have:
- They can cut in any direction with material thickness of mm: 3300;
- easy enough to operate;
- are very stable;
- withstands reverse blows well;
- have low weight.
Gas propane torch can cut sheet metal up to 300 mm thick. The equipment has a whole set of technical features that contribute to its long service. Many parts are easily replaceable and can be replaced as needed while the job is in progress (without leaving the work site). In most cases, it is possible to replace with analogues. Besides, propane has relatively low cost. This makes it even more profitable to use propane torches.
Let’s consider propane torches “Mayak 2-01” and “PC-3P” as an example.
“Mayak 2-01” is used for manual separation, oxygen cutting of low-alloy and carbon steels.
Propane mouthpiece delivery set:
- external ;
- internal (for cutting metal of thickness, mm: 815) is set on the torch;
- with spare parts kit:
- (1530 mm);
- (3050 mm);
- (50100 mm).
“RS-3P” is a gas-oxygen, injector gadget designed for manual cutting of low-alloy and carbon steels.
- thickness of the cut steel, mm: ≤ 200;
- the gas used: propane / methane;
- length, mm: 500;
- climatic modification: UHL 1 and T 1 according to GOST 15150;
- operating temperature, °С:
- when working with acetylene: 45 minus 40;
- when working on propane-butane: 45ºCminus 15;
Acetylene torches are designed for hand torch cutting of carbon and low-alloy steels. The classic ones are injector type cutters:
Mixing of gases in them takes place in the injector chamber, which is located near the handle.
[help]Another variant of acetylene torch construction is a device for intra-nozzle mixing of gases (for example, a torch of the Salyut type). With it, the combustible mixture is created directly in the nozzle. This ensures a high level of operational safety, i.e. к. there is practically no probability of flame penetration into the cutting torch tube during blowback (there is no combustible mixture in it). [/help]
The thickness of the metal cut with this equipment depends on the number of nozzles on the torch:
- P1 type (“P1-01”, for example) is equipped with nozzles which allow cutting metal with thickness up to 50 mm;
- P2 type (“P2-01”, “Mayak-1-01”) are completed with nozzles that allow to cut metal with thickness up to 200 mm.
Portable gas cutter
Many have had the opportunity to observe the hard work of gas welders, transporting large and heavy cylinders with combustible gas and oxygen on a variety of carts to the workplace. To create mobility, the torch is connected to cylinders through long hoses. It’s uncomfortable and hard to operate. And it is these long hoses that make the biggest inconvenience.
It is quite another matter if you have a small portable, injector-type portable gas cutter. It is moved from place to place by 1 person. If necessary, he can lift it to a considerable height. The set of such a gadget includes:
- Gas-welding torch or cutting torch;
- short hoses up to 5 meters long;
- 2 oxygen cylinders with a capacity of 5 liters each;
- 1 propane cylinder, the capacity of which can be: 2, 3 or 5 liters.
Widely spread gas cutters that are mounted directly on a cylinder. They, by heating the surface to T = 1300 ° C, are often used for various domestic purposes (eg, welding of metals with low melting point). Their created heating temperature is sufficient to soften the following metals:
For comfortable operation, gas cutters are equipped with a holder on the cylinder and piezo ignition. These gadgets are autonomous and compact. Which makes them convenient to use both outdoors and in the garage. The devices are very versatile:
- they are convenient for making a fire outdoors in cloudy weather;
- they are used to warm up a frozen padlock in the gate of a country house or cottage and in many other cases.
Gas cutting torch, portable gas cutting torch for metal
Check out the video, on the classification of torches: