Typical radiators connection schemes in a private house: Features of a single.pipe and two.pipe connection
As the practice of recent years has shown, from the listed series of radiators, bimetallic models are the most effective and reliable. They have a clear advantage over other materials that are in:
- high resistance to corrosion;
- a wide range of operating temperatures and pressure;
- a simple possibility of changing the heat transfer of the device by changing the number of sections scored;
- low inertia when heated and cool;
- a small amount of coolant required for filling;
- small weight that facilitates installation;
- affordable for most people.
It should also be noted the simplicity of installing bimetallic radiators. Due to the presence of standard mounts, this process will not entail the destruction of structures and ensure high.quality fixation of heating equipment.
The design of bimetallic batteries consists of a set of sections. In the collected form, such a package is two horizontal pipes connected by vertical hollow ribs along which the coolant circulates.
To increase the heat transfer of the heating device, the outer surface of the ribs and pipes is increased due to additional planes. The sections of the sections are carried out with the help of hollow nipples with bilateral threads, provided that the sealing gasket is installed.
To protect against corrosion, the inner surface of the sections is covered with a protective layer of aluminum alloy. The outer metal surface is painted according to the technology of thermal application of powder polymer paints. This gives the products a beautiful appearance and provides their durability.
Before installing a bimetallic heating radiator with your own hands, you need to purchase a set of 4 special traffic jams. Two of them have an internal thread ½ inch, the third should be without a hole, and another device is installed on another air for producing air
When buying a kit, you should pay attention to the direction of the thread. there should be two right and two left
Types of heating systems
The amount of heat, which will radiate the heating radiator, is not least dependent on the type of heating system and the selected type of connection. To choose the best option, you must first understand what kind of heating systems are and how they differ.
One.pipe heating system is the most economical option from the point of view of cost costs. Therefore, it is precisely this type of wiring that prefer in multi.storey buildings, although in private such a system is far from uncommon. With this scheme, the radiators are included in the highway sequentially and the coolant passes first through one heating parting, then it enters the entrance of the second and so on. The output of the last radiator is connected to the input of the heating boiler or to the riser in high.rise buildings.
The lack of this method of wiring is the inability to adjust the heat transfer of radiators. By installing the regulator on any of the radiators, you will regulate the rest of the system. The second significant drawback is a different temperature of the coolant on various radiators. Those who are closer to the boiler are heated very well, which further. get colder. This is a consequence of a sequential connection of heating radiators.
The two.pipe heating system is characterized by the fact that it has two threads of the pipeline. supplier and reverse. Each radiator is connected to both, that is, it turns out that all radiators are connected to the system in parallel. This is good because the input of each of them receives the coolant of one temperature. The second positive moment. on each of the radiators you can install the thermostat and with its help change the amount of heat, which it distinguishes.
The disadvantage of such a system is the number of pipes when wiring the system almost twice. But the system can easily be balanced.
Consistent connection of two heating radiators
Yes, I understood this right away, I have seen such packs, I so, by the way, I know that there are weakes, enough.
Sansvar wrote. I can’t put the crane on the bypass I am not just such If something is very critical in the customer’s desires, I refuse even for additional payment
I will raise the topic. From the developer we have two steel panel radiators of the Maxterm type 22 (two.row, two.panel) with a lower connection (apartment wiring, Beer Peaks). In appearance, it seems, they have bypasses (on the manufacturer’s website they didn’t answer anything about this). But no, they answered:
Tell me, please, when blocking the thermal valve, the coolant is bypassed by the radiator (the heat carrier flows remains constant) or the thermal valve simply overlaps the flow of the coolant. Thanks in advance for the answer. Yes. The thermostatic head regulates the stream passing through the radiator through the valve rod. T.e. regulates the flow rate of the coolant through the radiator. And the constancy of expenses through the system remains. over, if all radiators are triggered to restrict consumption, then the resistance of the system increases. And in this case, a bypass should be provided.
I have the task of modernizing the wiring of heating pipes in the apartment in order to eventually get as few intersections and joints of the pipes. There is already one advice to replace my Wishlist with a collector scheme. And I can’t understand why it is believed that the water, which is shunt by the bypas (still there are very strong suspicions of its presence), will be poorly heated by the second radiator?
Registration: 25.03.2011 Penza Posts: 7080
Loki wrote. We have two steel panel radiators of the Maxterm type 22 (two.row, two.panel) with a lower connection
Loki wrote. have bypasses (on the manufacturer’s website they didn’t answer anything about this)
Bypasses are used only in a one.pipe heating system. And they are not inside the radiators. There is a bottom connection of the built.in bypasses.
Draw the general scheme of the heating system in the apartment. Without it, even one.pipe or two.pipe your system is incomprehensible. Also indicate the brand of the valid reinforcement of the bottom connection of radiators.
Loki wrote. it will be bad to heat the second radiator?
If the pressure difference on the submitting and outgoing highways (feed/return) is sufficient, then the radiators will warm normally, subject to the calculation of the hydraulics of the entire apartment heating system, with the adjustment of its balancing with adjustment. Because the connection of an additional radiator will make an imbalance into the operation of the apartment heating system.
How critical the imbalance will be, it is not possible to answer without a hydraulic missile.
Hydraulic calculation of heating systems. Heat.recording (calculation of insulation) houses and apartments.
Sergants. Poor selective photo. But from what I managed to make out, I conclude that the system is two.pipe.
It is better to put a floor (intra.floor) convector of sufficient power under the window. Then additional.Radiators will not be needed.
Sergants wrote. And is it possible to leave accessories that is now worth?
It is strange that on the return there is a regular ball valve, instead of a locking valve. Then the thermal capacity under the blue cap should be with the premiums. If so, then leave it, and do not knock down design pretexts.
Hydraulic calculation of heating systems. Heat.recording (calculation of insulation) houses and apartments.
Water heating systems
We move on to the next step. the development of the project of the future system, according to which we will purchase materials, fittings and heat.power equipment. The task is to choose the right type of wiring, apply pipes to the layout of a private house, arrange heating devices.
Reservation. It is understood that under the installation of a heat generator, the place has already been allocated. the room is a furnace, an extension, a kitchen or a corridor. We set out the requirements of standards for the placement of boilers in another publication.
For the delivery of heated water to instruments and transmission of heat to the air of the rooms, the following schemes are used:
- one.pipe. horizontal “Leningrad” or a riser system;
- two.pipe. dead end, collector, passing ring (otherwise. the loop of Tichelman);
- Water contours of floor heating. warm floors (TP).
The first 2 types of turning work together with radiators or other heating devices. The movement of the coolant is provided in two ways:
- Forcibly, using an electric pump installed on a main pipeline or directly in the boiler.
- Natural circulation of water through pipes (gravity) due to the difference in temperature and the mass of the coolant between the supply and reverse line. Cold liquid is heavier, so he seeks to displace hot up.
In the first case, the system is not communicated with the atmosphere, it works with excess pressure 0.6 3 bar, depending on the degree of heating and initial pressure on the network. The emerging excess expanding water perceives a closed tank with a rubber membrane inside.
The gravity scheme is in contact with the atmosphere through the expansion tank located at the highest point of the system. In this way, confusion is prevented. the bubbles formed in pipes and batteries rise and go into the open tank. The slopes of horizontal areas contribute to effective air diving.
Consider separately each option and for clarity we give examples of standard schemes.
One.pipe wiring. pros and cons of
The supply and return of the coolant in this system is organized according to the only looped pipe. Accordingly, each radiator is connected to the highway with both eyeliners. In the Leningrad scheme, this collector is horizontally, the riser. vertically.
On the left, the connection of the radiator to a vertical riser is depicted, on the right. according to the Leningrad horizontal scheme
Negative moments of a single.pipe distribution of the coolant:
- Due to the purposes of chilled water, the temperature of the highway decreases by 1-2 ° C after each battery;
- To ensure the required flow rate of the coolant in heating devices, the diameter of the main pipeline should be at least 25 mm throughout;
- with the number of radiators more than 5 pieces of the collector section increases to 32 mm;
- The latest batteries receive chilled coolant, so they warm worse, the problem is solved by increasing the number of sections or increasing the size of panels by 10%;
- “Thanks to” the increased diameter of the highway and the increase in radiators, the costs of materials increase.
Note. The disadvantages of Leningradka are listed here, with vertical wiring, the disadvantages are not so critical. There the problem is different. piercing the floors of risers is not easy to pierce inside the walls, the pipes stick out in sight. details here: Description of one.pipe heating networks.
Classic “Leningrad” closed type with gas boiler
- Simplified laying. one pipe is easier to mount than two.
- The Leningrad Heating System of a private house collected from polypropylene pipes is the most budget option. But if you apply metal.plastic or stitched polyethylene, the indicated advantage is leveled due to the price of fittings.
- Single.pipe vertical risers. the best solution when installing a gravitational system in a two.story house.
Given the features of single.pipe schemes and the lack of installation experience among most homeowners, we recommend that Leningradka collect in small summer cottages or residential buildings. If you want to save, use polypropylene plus inexpensive steel radiators.
Methods of two.pipe bars of batteries
The main difference between these systems and one.pipe is the separate supply of the coolant to the instruments. hot water comes to the batteries along one highway, and returns to the other. When installing heating, 3 types of circuits are used:
Classic dead end (shoulder). The coolant is supplied to the battery group, then moves back along the opposite pipeline. If necessary, the system is divided into several dead end branches, a hydraulic balance is established between them due to balancing.
An important point. The main advantage of two.pipe networks is the supply of water with the same temperature for all radiators. Hence the remaining advantages. diluting pipes of smaller diameter (15-20 mm), normal dimensions of batteries and lack of restriction on the number of devices.
The developer. a beginner who first mounts heating with his own hands, is recommended to stop on the first version. shoulder wiring. It is simple and reliable, most affordable in costs. A sketch project in a one.story house is developed as follows:
- On the plan of the building, mark the windows and place the radiators near these openings. In the absence of glazing, the device is placed at the coldest outer wall.
- Place the heater in the drawing. a boiler, a stove with a water.heating contour, a heat pump.
- Track along the outer walls from the boiler room to the batteries. In order not to cross the doorway, divide the network by 2 shoulders approximately the same length.
- In the presence of the second floor, make 1-2 additional branches laid upstairs. The branch of the second floor is better to raise immediately from the boiler room.
Diameters of pipes for the building 100 200 m² (closed system): from the boiler. DU20, shoulders (branches). DU15, eyeliner to heaters. DU10. These sections are taken from practice, counting water consumption and hydraulics do not need. Exception. at home of complex configuration, high number of storeys and area.
About the methods of connecting radiators
The connection scheme must be considered in advance, the position of the heating device on the wall depends on this. Example: Installing batteries with a lower connection involves the installation of a headset with cranes that takes up to 10 cm of place under the heater. Imagine that 2 lines of a two.pipe system are laid above the baseboard, then with a low windowsill the radiator simply will not enter the niche.
Example of the second: you decided to independently make a replacement. to remove the old cast.iron “accordion” in the apartment and install a modern device. Iron pipes of wiring will not allow the lower connection. only lateral. To put the radiator in the middle of the window, you will have to increase polypropylene eyeliners or metal.plastic.
Diagonal connection options: on the left is a scheme with a ball valve, on the right. with a thermalhead
- Lateral versatile (diagonal). The coolant is supplied through the upper hole, leaves the lower from the opposite side, evenly flowing through the internal channels. The heat transfer is maximum, the radiator works efficiently.
- Lateral. both eyeliners join on 1 side. About 10% of thermal power is lost, since the far part of the battery warms up worse.
- The lower versatile scheme is used in horizontal single.pipe systems such as Leningradka. The effectiveness of the device is reduced by 10-20% depending on the pressure created by the circulation pump.
- The purely lower coolant eyeliner is not inferior to the diagonal due to the design feature. through the first vertical channel, the water rises into the upper zone of the radiator, and then diverges through the rest of the ducts and collects below.
Schemes with lateral connection are more often implemented in traditional systems. two.pipe or single.pipe (except Leningrad), which are mounted openly. Lower eyeliner is a more modern option, pipes from the boiler are laid in the floor, leaving directly under the battery.
The scheme of one.sided connection of the radiator to a two.pipe and single.pipe system of an apartment building. Instead of the upper tap, you can put a thermostat with a head, instead of the bottom. a balancing valve
4 types of radiator reinforcement
When the water heating is launched, the system must be balanced, during operation, perform repair and flushing radiators. To solve these problems, the following shut-off-regulating reinforcement is used:
An important point. When installing heating batteries, always use cranes with American women. straight and corner. Connection with a universal nut will allow you to remove the heater at any time without emptying the pipeline network.
On the left, a one.sided connection of the battery with a balance valve is shown on the left, and the lower versatile (used in the installation of single.pipe horizontal turning) is shown on the right)
How to install radiator reinforcement:
- When connecting a heating device with centralized heating, put 2 ball valves, a balancing valve will not be needed. Option two: on the feed line, you can provide a valve with a thermogol for automatic control of air temperature in the room.
- Radiators in a private house are connected as follows: at the entrance of a ball crane, at the exit. a balancing valve. If you want to adjust the duct automatically, instead of the input crane, put the thermogol.
- For the lower connection, use a special headset with a built.in balance valve from Danfoss, Herz Armaturen, Overs, Herz Armatoren. There are models for installing a thermostat.
When replacing the battery in the apartment, do not forget to provide a bypass for a direct water duct for a riser. The last radiator of the individual heating network of the country house equip 2 cutting off cranes, you will not have to balance it.
During the lower connection, the flow of the coolant is directed to the upper horizontal radiator channel
Location and height of the installation of batteries
Radiators should be installed in places of the greatest heat loss:
- traditional location. under the window, in the middle of the light opening (if you look vertically);
- in the corridor near the front door;
- on stairwells;
- Near the cold walls of living rooms without window openings.
Explanation. Когда батарея установлена в подоконной нише, восходящий конвекционный поток смешивается с охлажденным воздухом от окна. If stained.glass windows are made instead of the outer wall in the room, it is better to mount water or electric convectors into the floor.
If the installation of heating radiators is carried out under the windows, withstand the following minimum indentations:
- From the outer wall. 2.5 cm;
- from the windowsill. 50 mm;
- from the floor. 60 200 mm, depending on the type of heating device and the method of connecting it.
Unlike aluminum and bimetallic batteries, the depth of steel panel radiators varies in a wide range. from 6 cm (type 10) to 160 mm (type 33). The thicker the battery, the more air it is able to skip and heat. So, it is necessary to provide air supply from below and the removal of a warm flow on top of the heater. Installation circuits of steel panels of different types are shown in the drawing.
The height of the installation of panel radiators depends on the specific type
Recommendation. We do not advise you to completely sew the radiator after installation, making 2 convective openings with gratings. You will lose all infrared heat flow, and this is at least 20% of the battery power. But the air under the sheathing will heat up to 30-40 ° C, due to the temperature difference between the street and the niche, heat losses will increase.
Where and how to place
Traditionally, heating radiators are installed under the window. This is necessary in order for the rising warm air to cut off the cold from the window. In order not to sweat the glass, the width of the heating device must be at least 70-75% of the window width. It must be installed:
- In the middle of the window opening, the permissible deviation is 2 cm;
- the distance from the radiator to the floor is 8-12 cm;
- to the windowsill-10-12 cm;
- from the back wall to the wall-2-5 cm.
These are all recommendations, compliance with which ensures normal circulation of warm air in the room and its effective heating.
Ways to connect the radiator to the pipeline:
Different Ways to Install a Cast Iron Radiator
- Upper. The coolant enters the heater from above and goes in a similar way. This type of installation is distinguished by uneven heating, since the coolant does not warm the bottom of the device, so the use of this method in the houses is irrational.
- Lower. The coolant enters and comes out at the bottom, differs small heat losses (up to 15 %). The advantage of this method is the ability to mount the pipe under the floor.
- One.sided or lateral. The supply and reverse pipes are connected to one side of the convector (from above and below). In this case, good circulation is provided, which reduces heat loss. This type of installation is not suitable for convectors with a large number of sections (more than 15), since in this case the distant part will warm up poorly.
- Cross (diagonal). The supply and reverse pipes are connected from different side sides of the radiator diagonally (above and below). Advantages: minimum heat loss (up to 2%) and the ability to connect the device with a large number of sections.
The method of connecting radiators to the pipeline affects the quality of the premises heating.
All about fuel, gas and electricity boilers in our article.
Pipe wiring schemes
Private houses are characterized by one.pipe and two.pipe wiring. What is their difference?
Is the most economical option. Thanks to the scheme, the following should turn out:
- A pipe passing through the entire room and returning back to the boiler is carried out on the bottom of the floor from the heating boiler.
- Radiators are installed on top of the pipe, and the connection is carried out through the lower nozzles. At the same time, hot water is received from the pipe inside the heating device, which completely fills it. Part of the coolant, which gave the heat, begins to fall down and leaves the second pipe, entering the pipe again.
As a result, a phased connection of radiators with a lower connection of batteries occurs
In this case, it is worth paying attention to one negative point that affects the effectiveness of heat returns. As a result of such a sequential connection of one.pipe wiring, a gradual decrease in the temperature of the coolant in each subsequent element of heating occurs
Because of this, the last room will be the coldest.
- A circulation pump is connected to the system, which evenly distributes hot water through all heating devices;
- In the last room you can increase radiators, as a result, the area of thermal return will increase.
This scheme has such advantages as:
- simplicity of connection;
- high hydrodynamic stability;
- small expenses for equipment and materials;
- You can use various types of coolant.
For a private house, such a heating scheme is considered the most effective. However, it is worth taking into account the fact that the costs will first be considerable, because it will be necessary to carry out the wiring of two pipes to carry out the supply and removal of hot water. But still, such a scheme has certain advantages over a single.pipe:
- the coolant is evenly distributed throughout the room;
- You can control and adjust a certain temperature mode in each room;
- repair of any element of the heating system is possible without disconnecting it;
- very little is consumed fuel.
Two.pipe system: how to install it
If in the above case the coolant was supplied and removed along one pipe, then with this scheme these tasks are divided: hot water enters one pipe into the radiators, and is extracted by the other.
Diagram of the two.pipe heating system. In this heating structure, different pipes are used to serve and return.
Steam Heating Systems Basics hvacr
This feature complicates the design, but improves the efficiency of work.
Important! To outline the installation, you need to choose this system at the construction stage, although installation is also possible in the built house. Advantages:
- The number of floors in the house will not affect the effectiveness of the heating scheme, since the coolant with this connection option is distributed through two pipes, which is why the uneven temperature ratio on the floors disappears.
- The failure of one link of the chain (for example, batteries) will not entail the inoperability of the entire structure.
- The temperature in radiators does not change due to the distance; Due to the two.pipe distribution of the coolant, the heating of each element is uniform.
- The ability to regulate temperature using a thermostat.
- For proper installation, a team of plumbers will be needed, since the system is difficult to arrange and consists of a larger number of elements.
- With this number of details and the necessary devices, the price of the price becomes significant: to establish a two.pipe connection at least twice as much as a single.pipe.
Connection scheme: with natural circulation, an expansion tank is installed in the attic, where water from the boiler gets through the pipes, after which it is distributed by gravitational forces along the radiators on each floor below; If a pump is present in the system, then it is mounted in a chain after the boiler and drives out water throughout the system.
- The pipe along which the coolant arrives is located higher than the one on which the cooled water is removed.
- Installation of the expansion tank must be made above the level of installation of the heating boiler.
- The supply and removal pipes are laid parallel to each other.
- Straight angles are avoided, since air shutters appear in them.
- If the water circulation in the system is natural, then the supply pipe should have a tilt of 0.5 cm per 1 meter of pipes towards the radiator.
Reference. For large private houses in several floors of a two.pipe circuit. a suitable option for connecting a heating system.