Wood stove with a water loop: what to make
The essence of the furnace heating is the direct heating of the room due to convective and infrared heat exchange coming from the hot surfaces. To implement this principle, it is necessary that the heat source is in the heated room. It is often necessary to make a heater with a water loop. The latter is connected to remote radiators to distribute heat throughout the house.
It is necessary to plan the installation of the water circuit even before the furnace is built. It is difficult to remake the ready-made design, you will have to disassemble it again at least halfway.
To heat the coolant and supply it to the radiator system, the wood stove is equipped with a water heat exchanger. There are several varieties of homemade heaters and options for their installation:
For the organization of water heating in a small cottage is perfect to install the tank inside the brick oven. This is a proven and reliable method that allows you to heat water constantly. Provided the liquid level is constantly replenished, it is even possible to organize a hot water supply. In addition, due to the natural circulation there is no need to use centrifugal pumps that run on electricity.
When installing the heat exchanger the nature of the impact of high temperatures on it is taken into account. Inside the furnace, where open fire and heat, the metal parts will not last long: after 4-6 years you will have to change the construction. Stainless steel construction will withstand in this mode for up to 10 years. The optimal location of the heat exchanger in the chimney where it will be heated by convection.
How to make a simple but effective furnace?
This option can serve as an alternative to the simplest metal heaters. for example, burzhuyka. With this stove you can heat the room, cook food and even admire the flames.
The design occupies a little more than half a square meter. Unlike complete brick ovens, this one does not require a foundation. The weight of the construction is not so great that it is necessary to make a strong base. it is enough to put a strong board.
An oven can be made in a day. One of the advantages of this option is that the starting fire is possible in the evening. Certain skills are needed, but they are not beyond the skills of the average male.
For your information! No qualification for the construction of stoves is required. But it is necessary to comply with the rowing scheme. this will make the construction as effective as possible in the context of its potential.
What you need for work?
It is not only simple, but also a budget option. For the construction of the structure will be required:
- fireclay. 37 pcs.;
- red. 60 pcs.;
- ash door;
- firebox door;
- gate valve;
- cast iron hob.
As a binder. clay mortar. In total you will need about 20-25 liters of mixture.
Also of interest: barbecue stove types and characteristics.
The first thing to do is to determine the location of the furnace. Due to its low weight, it is not subject to the constraints of traditional brick solutions. After attaching sturdy boards or a suitable alternative material, the “foundation” is thermally and hydro-insulated.
The role of insulator can play a non-combustible material. for example, basalt wool. Put polyethylene or roofing felt on top of the foundation. The size of the latter corresponds to the size of the base plus a small allowance.
On top of a layer of sand 1-2 cm thick. Smoothing the backfill. It is important to make the base flat. the quality of construction and ease of subsequent work depends on it.
Layout of masonry
- The first row is placed on the sand, without mortar. A dozen bricks are aligned strictly on the level. The bricks are grouted with a thin layer of mortar, and then an ash door is installed at the end. The door is wrapped around the perimeter with asbestos cord to compensate for thermal expansion of the metal.
- After fixing the door with a wire, place the second row according to the scheme. Create an ash-pan.
- Chamotte is used (in the diagram it has a yellow color). After masonry work the grate is installed over the ash-pit.
- Before that, bricks were laid flat. On this row it is placed on the rib. Form the chimney and make the base for the baffle inside it. One of the bricks (it is seen in the picture) is put “dry”. After that the firebox hatch is mounted, which is several times wrapped with asbestos strips before mounting. But this has to be done in such a way that the door opens upwards. The element is fixed with a wire and a couple of bricks.
- Bricks are laid flat again, duplicating the previous row.
- Again the “rib” is the second and the last row, in which bricks are put like this. The exception is the next row, where one of the walls is made ribbed. Wipe the walls of the chimney with a wet rag.
- Bricks are laid flat according to the scheme. The back wall is made using the “on the rib” format again.
- This range closes the combustion chamber. A pair of bricks should overhang the firebox so that the flame is shifted to the middle of the hob. in case the stove will be operated as a fireplace (without closing the firebox door).
- Bricks are pushed to the back wall to support the door of the firebox. Before the brickwork lay strips of asbestos soaked in water. Thanks to this, the gap between the ceramic and cast iron is hermetically sealed. Do not put the cast-iron panel directly on the clay mortar, otherwise the difference in the thermal expansion parameters of the materials will lead to cracks.
- At this stage starts the formation of the chimney. The last one, according to the plan, should extend smoothly to the back side. But only the chimney base is made of brick. The other part is made of light metal. Otherwise, the excess weight of the element may cause the center of gravity of the stove to shift.
- Here install the gate valve sealed with strips of asbestos. It is recommended to coat the last ones with clay mortar beforehand. This is the final row, which completes the erection of the stove directly from bricks with their own hands. The remaining couple of rows are given to the chimney, which will then be joined to the lighter metal channel.
After that, remove those bricks that were laid “dry” on the 4th row. At the same stage, clean the chimney and the surface of the stove from debris.
The simplest stove does not require any serious decorations. The only decoration is whitewashing. It is recommended to add a little blue and milk to the composition. this will prevent the coating from the formation of yellow stain and bleaching.
Important! Protect the bricks and metal before working. If this is not done (for example, with a film), then the stains will not get rid of.
It is necessary to seal very well the joints between the brick and metal chimney, as well as the joints between ceramics and cast iron.
It is necessary to close the joint between the stove bricks and the floor. This prevents the underburning sand from getting into the room. It is advisable to cover the joint with an Ms-shaped sheet. Then a skirting board, which serves as a decoration and an additional element that prevents the “foundation” backfill, is put in place.
The stove is ready. The entire process took no more than one working day. Even now, a low-powered kindling may be tried. Do not use logs, only wood chips or paper. A woodburning fire will create too high a temperature, and the construction will crack. Allow a week or two for the mixture to fully set. After that, it is possible to use it “maturely”.
Before you start the construction, you need to go through the preparatory stage. Take it seriously. the more meticulous the approach, the better the result. Furnace with their own hands from scratch out of bricks. quite a real challenge.
Preparation for construction takes place in several stages.
- Buy building materials.
- Determine the location of the building in a dwelling house.
- Pour the foundation.
- Prepare mortar to work with bricks.
These are the basic steps of preparation before building a brick oven.
The necessary materials and tools
To make a stove out of bricks with your own hands, you need to choose high-quality materials. To build a structure, it is necessary to take:
bricks. For each project, individual calculations of the quantity; doors: for the ash pan and the firebox; clay for mortar; grate; sootblower; damper; grates grate grates; slide; cast-iron hob.
It is forbidden to use silicate bricks to build the furnace. even the double variety is not suitable.
Refractory bricks are optimal for the stove, ceramic bricks are rarely used.
The basis for the mortar will be clay. The red one is good for red bricks, the fireclay one for fireclay bricks. There are also special mortars for construction of stoves on sale, to work with the mortar, you just prepare it as it is written in the instruction.
For the construction of the furnace take the following tools:
- measuring tape for measurements;
- plumb line;
- Swabbing broom;
- building level;
- a binding wire;
- Capacities for preparing cement and clay mortar;
- an angle grinder;
- Strips and corners of metal;
- mason’s hammer.
The base under the structure must be strong and reliable. To do this, prepare a stable foundation. The following materials and tools will be needed:
If exterior wall finishing work is to be done, you must buy materials for it.
Peculiarities of choosing the place for installation of the heater
Usually the location of the furnace is designated even before the construction of the house in the project. This is necessary in order to install heating equipment in a place where warm air flows will be evenly distributed throughout the room. Stove foundations must be separate from the foundation. The distance between their walls should be at least 150 mm.
Failure to comply with regulations regarding the construction of the foundation will lead to deformation of the surrounding walls.
A properly installed stove should heat several rooms through the wall at once. If there will be several rooms in the house, it is worth installing a primer at the intersection of the walls. Since the foundations must be separate, it is better to make the inner walls light.
There are cases when the furnace is installed near the front door. This is how a heat curtain is made to protect rooms from cold air masses.
It is better not to place the edges of the stove close to the walls of the house. This is due to the fact that it is necessary to provide full access to the brute. Owners are advised to inspect the heating equipment regularly: it is a safety compliance. If the stove is part of the wall of a dwelling house, then a layer of heat insulation is laid between it and the end part of the partition.
If the furnace is installed in a built room, you must make sure that the chimney is not too close to the beams. Distance. than 15 cm with thermal insulation.
The area before the furnace is covered with a fire-safe material. Usually choose metal sheets or ceramic tiles.
For the stove to work safely and efficiently, you need to properly equip the foundation. It must be separate from the common.
Before you start designing and laying the foundation, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the distance of the chimney from the roof overlap should be more than 15 cm. You draw a marking of where the grubka will be located.
If the house floors are made of wood, at the location of the stove they are cut. From the outer edge, a distance of 15 cm. In the resulting hole excavate the pit. Its depth depends on the climatic conditions of the region and the degree of freezing of the soil, usually enough 0.7. 0.8 m.
At the bottom of the hole gradually poured 15 cm of sand. It should be watered with water for compaction. Pour a layer of crushed stone up to 15 cm on top. It is tightly and evenly tamped. In the corners of the resulting excavation wooden pegs are hammered in, and the lining boards are attached to them. The walls are covered with a polyethylene wall, so that the grout does not seep in.
At 5-10 cm from the floor is installed reinforcement mesh. It is placed on the nailed to the bottom of the metal bars or pieces of bricks.
Concrete is prepared for pouring the foundation. To do this, mix cement (M-400), sand and gravel in a ratio of 1:3:4. A small amount of water is poured: its consistency should be of medium flowability. If you overcompact, the base will be fragile, it will quickly collapse under the weight of the bricks.
Build an outdoor wood stove from bricks and cement
Fill the formwork with the prepared mixture, level it with a rule. After a few hours, when the composition has “set”, it must be covered with a film. The prepared place for the structure is left for several weeks until the mortar dries.
The upper base of the furnace should be 15-20 cm below the floor level.
Preparation of mortar
For masonry stoves in the conditions of a private home, clay and sand mortars are used. Kaolin and fireclay marl are good for chamotte. For ceramic bricks take ground gray, blue Cambrian clay with refractory characteristics.
For 100 bricks you will need about 40 kg of clay.
Before preparing the mortar, the clay is checked for fatness. This is necessary in order to determine what proportion it should be mixed with the sand.
To test 1 kg of clay powder is poured with water to the upper edge, insist one day. If marl will be used in the construction, it is enough to stand for 2 hours. After souring, dilute the clay with water, the consistency should resemble a thick dough.
The resulting wet clay is divided into 5 equal parts. In each of them is added sand in different percentage ratio: 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 100%. After that the resulting mixture is dried for 4 hours. Roll up small sausages from each clay mass (diameter. 1,5 cm, length. 30 cm), make a circle.
- If there are no cracks in the mortar, it is suitable for any construction.
- If there is a dry crust and minimum of damage, it can be used.
- Cracks are about 1 mm deep. it is suitable only for low-powered heating equipment.
- If there are breaks and deep damages, the mortar may not be used.
It is possible to prepare the mortar according to the identical algorithm.
- Pour the required amount of clay with water for a day.
- Mix it to the consistency of dough, sift through a 3×3 mm sieve. this will remove lumps.
- Add the sand in the proportions, which the test showed to be optimal.
- Pour in water and stir until the consistency looks like a thick sour cream.
If it is not enough greasy, it is necessary to add sand or clay. It is checked with a trowel. a trowel is wetted in a mortar and the result is evaluated. With a normal ratio of components will stick 1-2 mm of composition, no more and no less.
Useful tips for masonry brick stove for the country house
At the end of the article, we recommend that you read the instructions on masonry wood stove for cottages.
The video describes in detail the dry masonry process of a simple brick oven
How to find a suitable place for the stove
Our stove is very compact, it only takes up 0.5 м 2. But it is necessary to competently determine the location of its laying, so that the exhaust pipe was far enough away from the wooden ceilings, fencing structures, roof elements, and there was no furniture, household appliances and other items near the furnace. Need convenient access both directly to the slab, and to the bouncing brick behind the stove. It is recommended to have a roof over the furnace to prevent the rain from washing out the masonry.
Due to its small size and respective weight, there is no need for a foundation in the usual sense of the word, other than to arrange a bed of crushed stone (50 100 mm) and sand fill (10 30 mm). the main purpose of the pillow is to level the base and distribute loads evenly. To waterproof the bottom row of bricks, before laying it is necessary to put an appropriately sized sheet of ruberoid, polyethylene or other material with similar properties.
A stove with a hob
In the simplest variant such construction has small dimensions (width 2 and depth 3 bricks. 78×53 cm). Nevertheless, even in such a limited space it is possible to place a single-burner stove.
The work gets better when you have everything you need at your fingertips.
Therefore, buy the following materials and accessories in advance:
- Red solid bricks. 107 pcs;
- Ash door. 1 pc;
- Grate of fire grate. 1 pc;
- Single burner cast iron stove. 1 pc;
- One piece firebox hatch;
- Chimney slide. 1 pc.
Refractory bricks are not needed for a wood burning stove. Buying a chimney is a waste of money. But the red should be chosen carefully, discarding the cracked and uneven.
Masonry mixture is made by mixing four parts of clay with one part of water and adding to them eight parts of sifted sand. Normal consistency is determined simply: the mortar slips easily from the trowel, without leaving any streaks on it. During masonry it should not leak from the joints.
The volume of mortar is determined, focusing on the number of bricks. At the optimum joint thickness (3-5 mm) one bucket is enough for 50 pieces.
After preparing the masonry mixture, you can begin laying the foundation. Its width is 10 cm more than the width of the furnace. The height of the foundation chosen so that the bottom of the first row of bricks was at floor level.
If the basement is deep enough (50-60 cm), then dig a hole under the foundation is not necessary. It is enough to make a formwork on the ground with the size of 76 x (5110cm). At its bottom lay two layers of roofing felt to protect against moisture. After laying concrete, it is given a week to gain strength and then proceed to masonry.
The dimensions of the furnace we are considering with the hob are 3×1,5 bricks (76×39 cm).
Each new brick layer must be placed without mortar (dry). After adjusting the size of the bricks, you can begin laying.
The first row is placed on a layer of clay mortar (4-5 mm). After leveling the base, the second row is laid, leaving room for the ash door.
Before installing the door to it need to screw a soft wire and put its ends in the joints for better fixation.
To compensate the thermal expansion of the metal, a gap is left between the door and the brick. Before installation, its frame is wrapped with a wet asbestos cord.
Laying of the third row overlaps the seams of the second row. At this level the grate in the firebox is installed.
The fourth row is built on the edge, keeping the joints crossover, and forms the walls of the furnace chamber. Behind it will be the first and only flue (see section A-A in the diagram). To clean its bottom in the back wall without mortar, put the so-called bouncing brick, periodically taken out to remove the ash. Inside the chimney make two supports from pieces of brick for the support of the internal partition.
The stones of the fifth row are put flat, leaving room for the firebox door. In the back of the furnace on the poryadovka we see the walls of the two flue channels. Their surface during work should be thoroughly cleaned with a wet rag from the clay protruding from the joints. This is an important precondition for a good draught.
Useful tip! When referring to the drawings of the stacking patterns, do not forget to look at the two cuts of the stove. They will help you to better imagine its design and not to make a mistake when laying bricks.
Having risen in a laying up to the eighth row, overlap the firebox door, having laid in joints of a wire fixing its frame. At the same level, in the back of the fuel chamber is placed a brick with a beveled end. the chimney tooth. It improves the heat output by preventing the flue gases from escaping quickly down the chimney.
Having finished the ninth row, on it on clay mortar asbestos cord is laid. It is necessary for sealing the joints of the cast iron plate and brick. On the tenth row, the firebox is overlapped with a cooking plate.
On the eleventh, a smoke damper is installed in the chimney. It is also sealed along the contour with asbestos cord soaked in clay.
12 and 13 rows. After they are finished, a light-weight sheet metal chimney is placed on the furnace, which is led out onto the roof.
Choosing the right stove
Brick stoves for cottages can be quite different purposes. The price of their production will also depend on this. First of all it will be necessary to determine this.
A brick dacha stove can have a completely different design. Some combine it with a fireplace, but here we should take into account that the more combinations, the greater its weight and the increased need for building materials, which significantly increases the cost.
In the case if you start to use the stove, as a fireplace, then it will decorate your house well, and it will be filled with comfort, coziness and warmth, and in fact every owner dreams about it. Brick dacha stove is also divided by installation option.
Brick stove for dacha can be made in any of these options, you will need to pay attention to the material of the walls and the area of the room for the right choice.
Choosing the best location
Here are the basic requirements for determining the location for the stove:
- The room where you plan to install a wood stove must be at least 16 sq.м.
- The stove should be installed on a solid foundation, which means that under it there should be no floor joists. The chimney must go out in a place where there is no flooring.
- Construction near the outside wall is not desirable, because the precious heat will be given to the street. Therefore, it is better to determine it in the center of the house, the chimney will go out around the ridge, and the pipe height will be less. For wooden houses, central location is recommended for fire safety reasons.
Now let’s talk about the peculiarities of choosing a location for the stove. The best option to ensure a good heat output is to place the stove so that all walls can be in contact with the air inside the dwelling. Rooms should not be large, then no additional heat sources are needed.
When installing a multifunctional stove in large rooms, it should be placed again in the center of the room. The stove becomes a place of concentration of coziness, which gives the home hearth. We get something similar to a studio apartment, with a free layout, where the stove becomes a space divider.
Why the stove?
The issue of heating is acute in the construction of private houses. Of course, if you do not intend to live in it permanently, but to use it only as a summer refuge from the bustle of the city, you can leave everything as it is. But don’t you want to fry some tasty kebabs in the cold winter? There are several ways to solve the problem, the most complex. to conduct the main gas pipeline or make an autonomous gasification. The main disadvantage of this option. a large material investment. You can use electric heaters, but still in the house will not be warm enough, plus the price of the unit itself and the kilometer electricity bills.
Giving preference to brick, small cast iron or metal stoves for summer residences, which are heated with quite affordable wood, you will solve this problem with minimal cost, especially since build them with your own hands is quite feasible. The main advantages of such devices include cost-effectiveness. You will not depend on the central gas pipeline and electricity. Wood-burning stoves for country houses have an excellent heat output and are very easy to use, and if necessary, you can even cook food on it. In addition, this type of heating is considered the most environmentally friendly.
But there are also some disadvantages in such designs. First of all, to heat this stove is somewhat more difficult and longer than turning on a boiler or electric heater. True, thanks to current technology it has been possible to fully automate the process, there are even units with a built-in mechanism for chopping firewood. However, such designs are very expensive. And here are more simple brick stoves for villas, working on wood, lack these options, but they are easy to make their own hands.
The next disadvantage. the need for space. Usually the stoves occupy a relatively large area. Plus, it is necessary to take care about where you will store the wood. And the last minus, no matter how economical this option may seem, you still have to pay a pretty penny, especially if you want the device was not only useful, but also had an attractive appearance.