Automation for solid fuel boilers
Solid fuel boilers continue to hold their positions on the heating equipment market firmly. Modern models are able to squeeze the maximum of thermal energy from firewood, coal and briquettes, moreover, transfer it to the coolant with minimal losses. Improve the quality of work, simplify maintenance and operation is helped by automation for solid fuel boilers. A very effective way to control the process of combustion and maintaining a given temperature of the coolant is achieved only by the presence of a injection fan and command controller, which controls it and a circulation pump.
It seems very difficult to control the process of burning coal or firewood. At all times, the tuning of the boiler was purely individual for each boiler, was performed manually and required a lot of experience and dexterity. As a good result, the maximum efficiency was achieved in aggregate fuel economy. However, with incorrect tuning, most of the heat simply flew into the pipe.
The automation process, which has long become commonplace for any other types of boilers, reached solid fuel boilers. It turned out that it was enough to use a very limited set of tools and sensors to ensure a controlled combustion process, increase the safety of boilers and exactly maintain the temperature of the water in the heating circuit.
Automation for solid fuel boilers includes:
The principle of operation of automation is extremely simple. It is enough to adopt to control the control of the blow, to control the volume of incoming air into the combustion chamber to ensure the optimal combustion regimen and the safety of the entire boiler equipment of the entire boiler equipment.
The fan is installed instead of a standard damper through which fresh air enters the combustion chamber. The controller controls the fan and, in accordance with the installations, is able to change the volume of the incoming air:
- If you need to get the maximum of thermal power, then the fan is turned on at full speed and supplies a large volume of air saturated with oxygen. The active combustion of fuel is accompanied by an increasing output of thermal energy
- In working mode, the fan switches to moderate speed and maintains combustion at the optimal level necessary to obtain the desired temperature of the coolant.
- In case of overheating or reducing the target temperature of the water in the circuit, the fan stops and without access to oxygen fuel only barely smolders, releasing the minimum amount of heat.
A similar cycle is repeated over and over again, providing, albeit stepped, but regular combustion control.
The supporting data for the controller is the indications of the water temperature sensor in the boiler. Actually this is enough to ensure normal operation of automation. In addition, some types of automation control the temperature of outgoing gases entering the chimney, the temperature outside the house and indoors. In this case, additional protection and safety are ensured, and it also becomes possible to extend the boiler with automatic correction of the target water temperature in the boiler, the ability to control the heating to maintain a comfortable temperature in the house.
In addition to the controlled fan, automation can control the circulation pump to contribute to the constant and uniform spread of heat along the heating contour. By increasing or reducing the speed of water circulation in the circuit, you can influence the efficiency of heat transfer from the combustion chamber to the coolant, directly increasing the efficiency of the boiler.
Among the additional functions of the automation unit of a solid fuel boiler can be:
- GSM module for remote control of the boiler and remote settings.
- Planning of the boiler, according to the schedule, setting the desired temperature depending on the time of day and day of the week.
- The introduction of a solid fuel boiler in the general control system “Smart House”.
Automation scheme with automation for solid fuel boilers is no longer necessary to constantly monitor its work, adjust the installations of the damper, worry about the fact that the fuel will be wasted or clearly inefficiently. In addition, real savings of funds are obtained, because with accurate adjustment and constant control of fuel combustion, less is spent, it is used more efficiently and purposefully. Cotroller monitors the state of water and controls the combustion process within 24 hours a day every day throughout the pepopying season.
Automation for solid fuel boilers is more often produced by manufacturers who are not directly involved in the production of boilers. These are firms and companies specializing in principle in process automation. Therefore, it will be useful to find out the list of the most common and already trusted manufacturers of command controls in the market.
Advantages and disadvantages
Automation for stoves operating on solid fuel has a large number of advantages, and only one drawback. They will be considered below.
- Automatic temperature adjustment. Previously, a person had to put a damper at the right level to increase and decrease the temperature in the boiler. Now, modern stoves on solid fuel themselves will take care of this. A person only needs to configure the temperature and that’s it! The boiler will check the temperature during operation, and using special devices, such as the fan, the pump, will limit, or increase the air supply. If the temperature inside the boiler rises, then the air supply is automatically limited, and if the temperature is less than the given norm, then the air supply increases.
- Independent work of the boiler. Previously, if the owner had to leave somewhere for several days, then he had to completely turn off the boiler, that is, to remove it from the working phase. With modern units, everything is different. Thanks to automation, you can set the minimum indicators for the furnace before leaving, and by arrival the house will be warm and cozy.
- Fuel arson. Now there is no need to set fire to fuel. The system will do it automatically.
- Security. Modern aggregates have the highest level. Special devices are installed in the system, which can determine the breakdown or decommissioning of a particular element. This will be evidenced by a sharp jump in temperature, a change in pressure, etc. If one is found, then the system automatically stops the work, and makes a sound, so the owner can quickly learn about the malfunction and call a specialist.
- Electricity supply. If suddenly the supply of electricity was interrupted, then the unit will work for some time.
- Self.loading fuel. Modern boilers have a special tank in which firewood or other type of fuel is stored. Automation is capable of loading fuel in the combustion chamber automatically. Now the ashin is also cleaned in automatic mode without human participation.
- Control system. There are types of automation where a person, by pressing special screen elements, should set certain values. But there are also options where a person does not need to approach the system, and can simply control the remote control, and the signal is captured at a fairly large distance.
These are the advantages of automation. I must say that all this is aimed at making human life as comfortable as possible, and the boiler is as safe as possible. Automation has only one drawback. energy dependence.
Design and principle of functioning
Automation that controls the operation of a gas boiler consists of many elements, conditionally divided into two subgroups. The first includes mechanisms that provide the full and safe functioning of the boiler itself. The second includes devices that make it possible to operate the heating system in the most convenient and comfortable mode for the user.
Components of the security system elements
Several modules are responsible for the operational security of the unit:
- Flame controller. consists of two main parts. electromagnetic valve and thermocouple. Timely and reliably overlaps the gas and prevents the formation of leakage.
- Thermostat. supports the given temperature of the coolant and protects the system from overheating. When the coolant cools to minimum temperatures, the module starts the boiler into the work, and after fixing the peak-high indicators, it turns it off, completely riding the owners from the need to constantly pay attention to the system.
- The traction sensor is responsible for the termination of gas supply to the burner in case of changing the basic position of the bimetallic plate, preventing gas leakage in this way.
- Safety valve. monitors the amount of coolant in the circuit.
In addition to all of the above useful qualities, automation has a number of additional functions that increase the comfort of using equipment.
The device performs an authorized gas burner, selects the most effective working regime, contributes to the rational consumption of the energy resource and conducts independent diagnostics, riding the owners from all these classes.
Safety automation principle
Actual regulatory documentation says that the security complex of gas boilers must be equipped with a device that stops the operation of the entire system and blocks the supply of gas in case of unexpected breakdown or any other force majeure circumstances.
To carry out this task, the automation must keep under control such parameters as:
- gas pressure in the system;
- the presence of an optimal size flame in the burner;
- full.fledged, high.quality traction;
- The temperature level of the working coolant.
When in the energy.dependent mechanical system the gas pressure drops to a critical level, the supply of the resource immediately stops. This happens automatically due to the presence of a valve mechanism configured for a certain value.
Energy.dependent electronic devices are designed somewhat different. In them, the above function performs the relay of the minimum/maximum pressure.
With an increase in the number of atmospheres, the membrane with a rod bends, blurring the contacts of the boiler itself. Gas stops and is not supplied until the pressure level is restored.
Independently eliminate problems and somehow intervene in the basic functionality of equipment is prohibited by legislatively. Only a qualified specialist. an employee of a gas.saving enterprise can correct any problems that have arisen
If the flame disappears in the burner, the thermal cools and ceases to produce current. After that, the electromagnetic damper in the valve no longer operates, and the gas stops going to the burner. When traction falls, the bimetallic plate is intensively warmed up, changes the shape and affects the valve, forcing it to stop supplying fuel.
The temperature of the coolant holds under the control of the thermostat. He ensures the maintenance of the heating mode chosen by the user, while not allowing the system to overheat and fail.
The nuances of the functioning of the system
Energy.dependent electronic automation in the work is based on information received from sensors. The microprocessor and the internal controller analyze this data, process and submit the command system that is optimally suitable for a separate specific situation.
In order for electronic automation to function normally for a long time, it is necessary to call the wizard annually for the inspection of equipment, the diagnosis of the microprocessor and view the memory module reports
The mechanics have a slightly different principle. When the boiler is turned off, the internal gas valve is completely blocked. At the time of starting the washer equipment, the valve is squeezed out on the valve and there is a forced opening of the passage for the fuel resource to the fabric. Ignition stimulates the heating of thermocouple and the voltage is generated on it.
This resource uses an electromagnet that supports the valve in open position. By turning the puck, the user can manually regulate the level and power of his heating equipment without any effort.
Automation for solid fuel boilers: how to make a heating system with a TT boiler effective?
In this article we will talk about how to make an effective heating system based on a solid fuel boiler.
Boiler. It is no secret that solid fuel boilers differ greatly in terms of effectiveness. But to focus on the price, the trademark and the country of origin to select an effective boiler are not worth. Efficiency is determined by such factors as the design of the heat exchanger and the boiler in general, the method of burning fuel (classic or pyrolysis), the size of the loading chamber, the duration of the combustion on one bookmark, etc. D. It is on these factors that the boiler efficiency, the temperature of the outgoing smoke gases and their quality composition depends.
Fuel. The quality and type of fuel also significantly affects the work of a solid fuel boiler. There are much more heat and much less smoke and soot from good dry firewood (logs of large.sized ones) than raw branches, and the duration of combustion will differ many times. As for good coal, it does not even compare with the highest quality and dry firewood. Any boiler, regardless of the design, gives more power on coal and works much longer than on firewood.
The optimal mode of operation. The most effective work of a solid fuel boiler. In case of loads close to maximum: in this mode, the fuel is burned completely without a residue, the composition of the chimneys meets the highest requirements of environmental norms, and the boiler heat exchanger gives out the maximum possible efficiency for it.
But this operating mode of the boiler is possible only during the period of “acceleration” of the heating system, that is, when you melted a cold boiler and in the house it is still cool: the boiler is flared up, an intensive process of heating the heating system and the room is underway. Further, having achieved the desired temperature in the room, you set up the boiler for moderate combustion mode (maintenance mode) so as not to overheat the boiler, heating system and the house, and in order not to spend fuel in vain. From this moment, any solid fuel boiler, and good and not very, reduces its effectiveness: the air for combustion enters the furnace less, the fuel burns more slowly, the temperature of the boiler is reduced and for some time it is held at the same level. In this case, the quality composition of the smoke gases is changing: in addition to the main components of smoke. So₂ and N₂O, a large number of soot appear (you notice it by the color of the smoke) and CO (carbon monoxide), as well as other harmful impurities. Soot and carbon monoxide is nothing more than unfinished fuel, which we throw into the sky.
In boilers, with automatic fuel supply, for example, pelleble, diesel or gas to achieve the optimal mode of operation, or rather optimal heat production, is very simple. To do this, you only need to reduce the amount of fuel supplied. The amount of air that is supplied to the furnace will also be reduced, but the proportional ratio of fuel-air will remain unchanged: less fuel and air-less heat, and vice versa.
But not everything is just at Solidop-we have learned to regulate the air, but the fuel has already been supplied to the furnace, the entire volume of the woody laying has passed from the moment of kindergarten is covered with a flame, that is, the logs are heated to a certain temperature, and their entire surface has become actively release gaseous combustible chemical compounds. Reducing the amount of air, we leave part of the combustible chemical compounds without oxygen, that is, they simply do not burn and, under the influence of high temperature, going into a gaseous state, disappear into the atmosphere through the chimney. This, as if we had violated the balance of gas-air in the gas burner, then part of the gas would fly to the atmosphere, while gas consumption would remain the same, and the amount of heat decreased.
The obvious conclusion suggests itself: the fuel in the boiler needs to be burned completely. But then where to put excess heat?
Stock the excess of heat for the future. Since ancient times, people have learned to save and store heat, and they did it quite simply: in a stone cave or in a clay hut, they left only the ventilation holes so as not to suffocate from the burning bonfire, and the bonfire was covered with stones around the perimeter. heated stones remained warm for a long time. after the brushwood in the stake burned out. Later, people began to build massive stone, and then brick stoves for heating the dwelling and cooking food. Often such stoves occupied half a house, which was not very convenient, but the stove at the expense of its mass was heated for a long time for a long time.
Tank Level Tuning. The Knowledge Board
How to store heat in modern houses, the size of which has increased significantly, and the number of rooms in them increased (stove heating is effective only within the room in which the stove is located)?
Burner, Heater, and Boiler Automation Solutions
The equipment specially created for this will help us. heat accumulator, that is, a well.insulated buffer container for storing heated water (coolant). We will run the boiler to maximum power (that is, in the optimal mode for it), on which it will work the entire cycle until all the fuel loaded into it burns out. And excess heat will accumulate in the heat accumulator. Когда все топливо догорит, а котел погаснет, тепло в помещение будет поступать из буферной емкости. And only after the heat reserves in the buffer are depleted, it will be necessary to melt the boiler again.
|Hajdu heat accumulator|
And we will fill out the heat accumulator using the Laddomat Turpat Class, which was also specially created for these purposes. It will redistribute the flows between the boiler, buffer and heating system, controlling the temperature of the coolant using the thermopatron built into it.
At the beginning of the kindergarten of the Laddomat boiler, the coolant in a small circle will “drive”, returning the heated water back to the boiler, helping it thus reach the maximum performance in a short time. By the way, carried out by Laddomat’om, the worship of the heated water in the return fishing line for the boiler trimmer prevents an undesirable temperature difference in the boiler, protecting it from corrosion.
Overview of control models
The most popular automation models are ATOS, Comfort IVF, AIR and Tech. Having familiarized themselves with their capabilities and properties, the choice is easy to make.
The Polish production device is successfully combined with heating boilers with a capacity of 25-50 kW, various designs and types. The block has a compact size and an intuitively understandable intensity. To install all important parameters, there is a dial for two digits. The power of the connected pump and fan is up to 130 watts. The device allows you to set the temperature of the coolant in the range of 35-80 ° C, and in the room-in the range of 25-50 ° C. When leaving the range, the alarm is triggered. Average
Functional and affordable option produced in Ukraine. Allows you to connect a circulation pump with a power of up to 450 W and the fan. up to 220 W. This electronic device is easily configured, ensures reliable and rational operation of heating equipment. The desired temperature level and the number of fan speeds can change at any time. You can purchase such a controller for 3500.
Functional and reliable controller of Poland production. Designed to work with pumps and fans with a capacity of up to 200 kW. The case is made of practical materials with additional protection against overheating. It is very convenient to control the entire operation of the boiler due to the presence of an extended set of keys and LCD display.
for controllers for solid fuel boilers Tech
Another compact and functional controller from the Polish manufacturer. Installed directly on the housing of the heating device, guaranteeing it protection against overheating and freezing. The power of the connected circulation pump and fan is up to 300 watts. Average
How to install a roller.fuel boiler traction controller
Connecting automation for a fan of blowing and a chain electric drive, it is better to entrust professionals.
The mechanical thermostat has a simpler device. Therefore, the node can be installed and adjusted by yourself. This is done in the following way:
In all modern boilers, a special mounting hole is provided for the thermostat.
How to check the traction in TT boiler
The characteristics of the traction are affected by several factors: the temperature of the chimney, the chimney section and weather conditions. You can check the presence of traction in a simple way:
Open the gate damper and the door of the furnace chamber.
As a rule, during the operation of the boiler, if there is a good craving, smoke does not fall into the room. Insufficient traction characteristics are manifested in how the fuel flares up, as well as the intensity of combustion.
Increasing the thrust and combustion of the boiler can be performed by fan. Most manufacturers manage automation with a smoke exhaust and a superior fan.
How to set up a thermostat on a TT boiler
The adjustment of the traction sensor can be easily performed independently:
A temperature of 60 ° C is set on a thermostat. Coolant in the boiler, bring to the same heating temperature.
To check the settings and make adjustments on the regulator, a temperature of 80 ° C is set. When this heating indicator is reached in the coolant, the damper should be closed. If this does not happen, the length of the chain is shortened.
The error in setting up a mechanical thermostat is 5 ° C. Electronic automation works more accurately, inaccuracy is 1 ° C.
The improvement of the old design regulator made it possible to automate the operation of a solid fuel boiler and prevent boiling of the coolant.
Advantages and disadvantages of traction regulators
These devices have both advantages and disadvantages.
- Low price for devices. Their cost depends on the manufacturer and model.
- Mechanical traction regulator for solid.fuel boilers. the tracto.regulator operates autonomously, regardless of electricity.
- Fuel for it is affordable.
- It works long and high quality.
If it is planned to purchase a solid fuel unit, then after connecting to the heating system, the question will certainly be how to configure the traction regulator for solid fuel boilers correctly, since this affects the efficiency and fuel consumption. It is better to entrust this to a specialist.
Smoke carcass for boiler installation
As already noted above, natural traction is far from always ideal burning fuel and removal of waste gases. This happens for many reasons, among which the most common are: weather conditions and the lack of an air flow. If the flow of air can be created with a simple opening of the windows, then it is impossible to change the air temperature in the summer for an ordinary person. In order not to depend on the thrust in the chimney, users install a device called smoke exhaust in the smoke exhaust system. In addition, the use of the smoke exhaust allows you to settle less soot particles of soot on the walls of the chimney, and accordingly and less often resort to the services of a chimney sweep.
This is an exhaust fan mounted in a metal node, which is mounted between the boiler and the mouth of the chimney. The picture contains the design of the smoke exhaust fan.
Establishing smoke exhausts for household solid fuel boilers with your own hands is quite simple:
- Install the knot at the installation site of the smoke exhaust. For tightness, apply a heat.resistant sealant to the joints of the joints.
- On the 4th hairpins, put the fan housing with the impeller inside. Make sure that the gasket is tightly adjacent to the smoke exhaust mount node.
- Put the washers and nuts on the stilettos and evenly tighten the fan on the node.
- Ground the device and connect the power connector to it.
Tip: In order to avoid electric shock, all work to connect the device to the mains is recommended to entrust the electrician with the appropriate tolerance to work.
How to put and configure the regulator
In most cases, the installation of a thermostat with your own hands entails emptying the water shirt of the boiler. This will not create a big problem if the strapping of a solid fuel boiler is performed correctly and the water heating system can be cut off with cranes. Otherwise, you will have to drain the entire coolant. After that, the plug is removed from the sleeve, and the device is screwed up instead and the system is again filled with water.
To configure the traction regulator, you need to light the boiler and follow the instructions:
- Without attaching the chain to the door, open it for air access.
- On the adjusting handle, loosen the screw. fixer.
- Put the handle in a position corresponding to the required temperature, for example, 70 ° C.
- Following the boiler thermometer, attach a chain drive to the barrier at the moment when it shows 70 ° C. In this case, the damper should be ajar by only 1-2 mm.
- Tighten the fixing screw.
Attention! It is necessary to make sure that the free chain stroke does not exceed 1 mm.
Next, you should check the operation of the thermostat in all modes, up to the maximum. It should be borne in mind that between the moment of closing the damper and the drop in the temperature of the coolant passes for some time and not in a hurry to reconfigure the device. Solid fuel heat generators are characterized by a delay, because firewood or coal in the fuel cannot go out at one point.